MEd 01-ADVANCED PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

             Med 01 -ADVANCED PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

                              (Model Examination December -2018)
                                                    Part A

?1.What is professionalism in teaching

A profession is an occupation which requires specialization in theoretic part of it and skill in practicing the theory.This means that one will have specialization and technical know- how in the theory and practice of a vocation as a professional.It is very often quoted that “Teaching is the noblest  of all profession but the sorriest of all trades”.This point out that profession has two main characteristics. The specialization as a characteristic of profession has already been mentioned .The other important quality is that profession is an occupation for service and not for profit or earning money .Trade and profession are differentiated mainly on this basic i.e.while the former is for earning money the latter is giving importance to service .all the profession such as medicine,law,education and engineering are motivated by this factor of self -satisfaction gained through service.among these teaching is the noblest but as a trade the sorriest.

?2.Define educational philosophy 

Educational philosophy refers to the application of philosophical methods to the theory and  practice of education. It is the practical application of philosophical assumptions to the various aspects of education .According to steiner,educational philosophy is the application of philosophical ideas to educational problems.
Educational philosophy is the branch of philosophy which attempts to answer such educational question as what eductation is ?and what its purpose is ?the nature of the knowing mind and the human subject,problems of authority,the relationship between education and society ,etc. The philosophical perspective provide the basis of education in terms of values ,aims and objectives.
?3.Comment on the statement “Bagavad Gita is an interaction between the teacher and the taught”.        
 

In order to formulate the principles of education the devine teacher Lord Krishna has not imparted his wisdom to his students as mere dictation like others .The gita answer the “why” of such education.The teacher must teach his subject with great competence but when the issue of judgement is involved he should let the student free as Arjun was finally left to decide himself whether to fight or not . The concept of the teacher in the Gita is that he must be most balanced .The  true teacher not only teaches truth but also demonstrates it .In short ,the teacher is vigilant enough to keep the soul and body of his student as well as his own together.
?4.Write a short note on the educational implicationas of pragmatisim
PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION ACCORDING TO PRAGMATISM
1)Stress on social and physical enviornment
2)Continuous reconstruction of experience as the aim of education
3)Child as the centre of activity.
4)Life situations as the basis of education.
5)Stress on freedom for the children
6)Experience and experiments as the basis of learning
7)Learning as problem solving
8)Positive educationa
9)Education as the origin of philosophy
?5.What is axiology
Axiology is a branch of philosophy which studies value philosophically .It deals with the “ought”.The issues under axiology can best be summarised as the trinity of “truth,goodness and beauty.”It has been divided into the following three sub-branches:
1)Ethics:It studies the criteria of rigt and wrong,good and bad ,virtue and vice,approval and disapproval.it is known as moral philosophy.
2)Aesthetics:It discusses the nature and criteria of beauty.
3)Logic :Logic is the study of rules and techniques of reasoning .it studies truth.The subject-matter of logic includes the method of judgement,types of prepositions,hypothesis ,definition,comparison,division ,classification and fundamental laws of thoughts.

                                             Part B

?6.Giva a short note on aurobindo’s philosophy on Education.
Sri.Aurobindo is the exponent of a philosophy popularly known as integralism or integral nospiritualism. His philosophy is essentially a reinterpretation and reconstruction of the Upanishadic truths in the lightr of his own realization.According to him, self-realisation is attained not by a mere renunciation of physical comforts, but by a rejuvenation and reformation of the entire physical, vital and mental ground of human existence. Auriobindo suggests five principal activities for the full evolution of human personality: physical , vital., mental, psychic and spiritual.Aurobindo defines education as a continued process of developing the powers of the body,mind and spirit by evoking knowledge, character and culture. It should be in conformity with the mental and spiritual needs of children. Education should be child –centered, meeting the needs and interests of the learner. Education should be in accordance with the need of our real modern life.
                      According to Aurobindo, each child is a seeker of truth and a critic. Insatiablke is his thirst for knowledge. Suoerb in his power of imitation and imagination, and the task of education is to guide his mind and spirit toward the goal self- realisation. It should be imparted through the medium of mother tongue. It should develop all the faculties of child to make him a complete man. It should be according to the mental abilities ,aptitudes and psychological needs of the child. It should develop consciousness. Brahmacharya should be the basic foundation of education. It should try to achieve the physical purification of the child and should train his senses.
                      Spiritual and supramental education gives more importance to the growth of the spirit than intellectual ,moral or even religious education. The educational theory of Sri.Aurobindo aimed at the development of the latent powers of the child, training of six sences,training of logical faculties, physical education, principle of freedom, moral and religious education training for the spiritualization of the individual.
?7.‘Education is the process of reconstruction of experience’. Analyse this view with reference to the present context of education.

According to Dewey, mind itself is a product of activity, and it develops through activity. To him, utility is the test of all values, educational or social, nothing is true which is devoid of utility. “only such thioughts are true, that change the world”. Truth and usefulness are identical to him. The worth of educational experience is measured in terms of the result it produces for the good of the individual and society. All development depends upon determined action.
             Dewey says’ Education is reconstruction or reorganisation of experience which adds to the meaning of experience and which increases the ability to direct the course of subsequent experiences”. He defines education as a continued process of experiencing ,and of revising or reorganizing those experiences. A child who touches fire and burns his finger revise and reorganizxes his experience. But this is a simple type of learning. Hence, Dewey in another context defines education as a development of all those capacities in the individual, which will enable him to control his environment and fulfil his possibilities. He observes that education doesn’t mean mere adjustment with the environment; it means gaining a command over the environment.
            Dewey holds, education is a tri-polar process means the educational process not only has a psychological side involving the educator and the educand, it has the sociological aspect too. The educand has to live in and for the society he belongs to. True education comesthrugh the stimulatioin of the educand’s endowments by the demands of the social situation in which he/she finds them. Thus, the social aspect of the educational process becomes more important than the psychological aspect.The function of the educator becomes then the modification of the personality of the educand in the light of the needs of the society.
       In the present context of education, student construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. Students are active creators of their own knowledge. In constructivism, encouraging studentys to use active techniques(experiments real world problem solving) to cerate more knowledge. The constructivist teachers provides tools such as problem solving &inquiry learning activities. In constructivist classroom students formulate their ideas and test them, draw conclusions and inferences and pool and convey their knowledge in a collaborative learning environment.
?8)Write a short note about the educational implications of humanism.
Respect for intellectuals and Literacy Scholarship
Freedom of Expression
Co-ordination between Humanistic and Science Subjects
Propagation of Democratic Principles
Respect for Ancient Cultures
Inculcation of Ethics of Humanism in the Curriculum
Development of Thinking power
Respect for Ancient Cultures
Respect for language
It is concerned with the restoration of lost values
It is movement to gain for many a proper recognition in the universe
9)What are the influence of Budhism on education?        
 The goal of Buddhist education is to attain wisdom. In Sanskrit, the language of ancient India, the Buddhist wisdom was called Anuttara-Samyak-Sambhodi meaning the perfect ultimate wisdom. The Buddha taught us that the main objective of our practice was to achieve this ultimate wisdom. The chief aim of Buddhist education is all round development of child’s personality. This includes his physical, mental, moral and intellectual development. The other aims of Buddhist Education are to make a free man, a wise, intelligent, moral, non-violent & secular man.
Buddhist Education was wide open and available to the people of all walks of life. The system of Buddhist education aimed at regaining our intrinsic nature. It also teaches absolute equality which stemmed from Buddha‘s recognition that all sentient beings possess this innate wisdom and nature. Buddha‘s teaching helps us to realize that innate, perfect, ultimate wisdom .With wisdom, we can then solve all our problems and turn suffering into happiness.
In the Buddhist era, religion was given top priority and education was imparted through it. The chief aim of education was propagation of religion and inculcation of religious feelings and education served as a mean to achieve liberation or nirvana. Preparation for life, there was a provision for imparting wordily and practical knowledge along with religious education so that when the students entered normal life they may be able to earn their livelihood.
In the early period Buddhist Education was limited within the monasteries and only for the members of the monastery. But later on it was open to all; even lay people got scope to have education in those institutions. In modern days Buddhist Education became wide open and embraced people of all walks of life. Buddhist Education made revolutionary change in the society. The Buddhists in the world first made Education open to all.
The Core of Buddha’s teaching contains three major points, discipline, meditation and wisdom. Wisdom is the goal and deep meditation or concentration in the crucial process toward achieving wisdom. Discipline through observing the precepts, is the method that helps one to achieve deep meditation; wisdom will then be realized naturally. Buddha‘s entire teaching as conveyed in the sutras never really depart from these three points.
Buddhist Education system developed on the basis of some basic principles. This education gave emphasis on the moral, mental and physical development and also to divert the students towards the Sangha rules and guide them to follow it. The main stress was given to have a clear idea of Tripitaka which consists of Sutta Pitaka, Vinaya Pitaka and Abhidhamma Pitaka. The entire Tripitaka consists of Buddhas teachings, message, philosophy and rules for the Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunies. The curriculum was chiefly spiritual in nature. It was because the chief aim of education was to attain liberation. So the study of the religious books was most important. This type of curriculum was meant only for the monks.
Besides these spinning, weaving, printing of the clothes, tailoring, sketching, accountancy, medicines, surgery and coinage were the other subjects of Buddhist education. At the initial stage medium of education was mother tongue, later it included Pali and Prakrit and in the following days Sanskrit also included as a medium of instruction. Especially the Mahayana Teachers achieved distinction in practicing Buddhism in Sanskrit. A special Sanskrit Buddhist literature developed. Mention may be made here that at the hands of Nāgārjuna, Asanga, Vasubandhu, Shāntideva, Aryādeva and Candrakīrti Buddhist philosophy and literature made tremendous progress through Sanskrit. In later period according to the demand of the society and professional education, art, sculpture, architecture, medicine also included in the syllabus. Buddhist Education came out from the religious arena and went out for the benefit of the mankind.

12.Write a review of school curriculum at pre primary orPrimary or  secondary or higher secondary level ?

Curriculum
                    In Education ,a curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.  The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction,  or to a view of the students experiences in terms of the educator’s or school’s instructional goals.
             The courses are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier.  In schools, a curriculum can refer to the entire program provided by a classroom, school, district, state or country.  A class room is assigned sections of the curriculum as defined by the school. 
              Curriculum is important in education because it helps teachers to deliver an effective and quality education.  A curriculum sets standards, goals and learning outcomes that enable teachers to judge whether or not students are able to move on to the next level.
             There are three types of curriculum .
(1)explicit (stated curriculum)  (2) hidden (unofficial curriculum) (3) absent or null(excluded curriculum)
    Educational curriculum at different levels:
(1)Pre-primary level (2) Primary level (3) Secondary level (4) Higher secondary level
(1)Pre-primary level
 Prepare some nursery rhymes/songs which highlight on the item that God loves all his children without any consideration of high and low birth, religion, creed and status.
Prepare some games both indoor and outdoor which will install a sense of equality among the children (ex:- khokho, hide and seek)
Special instruction may be given to teacher to teach all children (whether someone is the ward of a village pradhan, MLA, MP or an ordinary citizen) on the footing of equality, especially on matters of arrival at school and departure from it.

13.   What is the importance of Yogadarsana on the contemporary education?
        Through physical and spiritual practice, yogis are devoted to creating a union between mind, body and spirit.  According to yoga darshana, the universe is the result of the interaction of nature (prakriti) and self (purusha).  The objective of yoga is to still disturbances of the mind so the self can be liberated.  These mental obstacles prevent liberation.  To help calm the mind, yoga darshana requires both moral and practical steps known as Eight Limbs of Yoga.
Importance of Yogadarsana on the contemporary education:-  Yoga Education helps in self discipline and self-control, leading to immense amount of awareness, concentration and higher level of consciousness.
To enable the students to have good health.
To practice mental hygiene
To posses emotional stability.
To integrate moral values.
To attain higher level of consciousness.
Yoga as a path to omniscience.
Yoga as a disciplined method for attaining a goal.
Yoga as an analysis of perception and cognition.
Yoga as the rising and expansion of consciousness.
Yoga as a technique for entering into other bodies, generating multiple bodies and the attainment of other supernatural accomplishments. 
?16.What are the difference in the educational implications of Realism and Naturalism.
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Realism:Realism is a philosophy of the twentieth century.Realism is based on the belief that the physical world alone is objective.according  to realism  the the external world is a reality .it is a world of objects and not ideas.Realism is of two kind . The old form of realism is scholastic realism and the new form is scientific realism.
Chief exponents of realism:
1)Aristotle
2)st.thomas aquinas
3)john hock
Educational implications
1.principles of education according to realism.
a)Education is preperation for life.
b)Truth has to be discovered with the help of scientific methods
c)All knowledge is derived from experience.
2.Aims of education
a) The aim of education should be to equip students with knowledge and skills needed to understand    and master their physical environment
b)The aim of education is enable students to adjust than selves to the realities of the physical world and to adjust with approval pattearns of adult behaviour.
3.curriculum
According to realism curriculum should be a defuelerd one.The child should have freedom to choose suitable subjects fro that detailed curriculum according to this ability.
4.Methods of teaching
There should be proper sequence in teaching .socratic method of teaching and audio-visual methods  in teaching are advocated.
5.Discipline
The child should attain self-discipline.He should learn to control his feelings and desiries and to perform this duties.
6.Role of teacher
The teacher is only a guide to children .He guides the children towards the hard realities of life.
7.Contribution of realism to education 
a)Systematic organization of teaching and learning .
b)Scientific evaluation
c)Use of standardised tests .
d)Realism stands for an evaluation which is practical and utilitarian.
e)Considering the needs of the individual and demands of the society.
f)Realism advocated the child centerd  educational
NATURALISM
Naturalism is the oldest philosophy in the western world . Naturalism is naturo-centric.According to naturalism,the material universe or nature alone is real.The father of naturalism is Russeau.
The chief exponent of naturalism
Democritius,Epicurus, Bacon,Herbert spienceer, Huxley , Rousseaue etc.
Educational Implication
1.Principles of education according to naturalism
a)Stress on physical environment
b)Education in accordance with the nature of the child.
c)Insignificant place for bookish knowledge.
c)Follow nature :Nature is the best teacher the child.
d)Child is the coutre of teaching learning process
e)Complete freedom of the child.
2.Aim of education
a)preparation of child for struggle of life
b)Sublimation of uncontrolled instinct
c)Adjustmentv to enviornment
d)Developement of physical and natural powers through experience
Curriculum
a)Wide range of curriculum is needed .
b)Subject taught should be useful for each stages of life .
c)Teaching of literary subjects moral or religious education not needed.
d)Curriculum focused  on the life stages of child and this aptitude.
4.Method of teaching
a)Teacher applies all the learning theories in his teaching such as conditioning ,trail and error etc.
b)Learning by doing.
c)Learning by experience
d)Self learning
5.Discipline
self – discipline is the best discipline approval by naturulist .It is based on the theory of natural consequencess of an act.
6.Role of teacher
The actual role of teacher of the child is nurture .the teacher role is that of a gardner who prepare the earth for proper development of plants only .
7.Contribution of Education
a)Naturalism has brought the child to the fore front of the educative process.
b)Naturalism stress that education should encourage the spontanious self activity of the child.
c)The concept of discipline in naturalism is very desirable.
d)Punishment is based on the consequence of wrong deceeds.children share freedom as well as responsibility.
?17)What is the roles of metaphysics in education.
Metaphysics represents essentially the speculative side of philosophy .it deals with the nature  of  being the norm of ethics with each examples .physics or some other science deals metaphysic is often thought of as the search for what is ultimately real. Aristotle defines “metaphysics is the science of reality Plato defines”Metaphysics is the knowledge of internals”.
 Metaphysics and education
Metaphysics  gives the curriculum of education .it has bearing on the philosophy of education in  that curriculum considerations are direction related to what man has come to know and value in this universe. They frequently underline class discussion in subject areas. For instance the metaphysics question whether or not human life has any purpose and if so what can be implicated in any discussion  of theoretical problems that can not be answered factually nothing contributes more to continuous , patient and careful reflection than the treatments  of a problems in it metaphysical dimension  determine what types of experience through which  learners could be helped  to realize the overfull goals of education should be or find out what the relevant areas of knowledge that could be used as the medium  for providing such experiences are .this indicate the 'what ' of education -resulting in the in metaphysic.

                                                           Part C
?18.'Education is the dynamic side of philosophy' discuss this statement clearly bringing out the relationship between philosophy and education.
According to John Adam, has described education as the dynamic side of philosophy .Philosophy shows the way to be followed by education ,and thus education becomes applied philosophy.
The word philosophy is derived from Greek words philos  and Sophia. Which means love of wisdom or knowledge .Philosophy in the science of knowledge by Fitch.
The educators need common observation,science and finally a philosophy . Philosophy provides with the formal basis while science and  common observation help to provide dynamic expression to the philosophical principles. It is for the reason that education has been called the dynamic or practical aspect of philosophical principles. Chartertion has correctly stated ,”there are some people and i am one of them who think that most practical and important thing about a man is still his view of the universe”.
Hence the difference between one educator and another is their difference of view point. Regarding the universe without philosophical training his knowledge will be fragmentaly. It is philosophy,which synthesis  the various bit and pieces of knowledge ,and it is rooted in actual life
. in the words of cunningham “philosophy thus grows directly out of life and its needs.Everyone who lives at all refelectively is in some degree a philospher”.
Philosophy and education are intewsely inter-related .The chief tasks of philosophy are to determine what constitutes a life worth living and that of education is to make life worth living philosophy tells in the goal of a good life . Education finds out the  means to achieve that goal .According to James s.Ross,”philosophy and education are like the two sides of a coin, philosophy the contemplative side and education is the active side.
According to sir John Adam,”Education is the dynamic side of philosophy :the practical means of realising the ideals of life “.To quote John Dewey ,”Education is the laboratory in which philosophical distinction become concrete and  are tested “.The truth and principles established by philosophy are applied in the field of education .In this sense ,we may say that education is applied philosophy.As Fichte has said,”The art of education will never attain complete clearness without philosophy”.Educational programmers become consistent only if their foundations are laid on sound philosophy.
Philosophy influence every aspect of education ,namely the air,content ,method and discipline. It is  philosophy which determine whethers the aim of education should be intellectual, spiritual, liberal, aesthetic ,moral ,or vocational.
Philosophy influence the methodology too.Naturalistic philosophy emphasises paidocentric(child-centered)methods.Idealism emphasis socratic andlecture methods. Pragmation emphasis the project method.
Philosophy influence the discipline in education .Autocratic philosophy leads to repressionism; Idealism leads to Emancipationism and modern pragmation leads to free discipline.
The teachers must possess a sound philosophy.He must be a lover of wisdom ,a seeker of knowledge ,a man of values. Then only can be bring about desirable changes inthe intellectual ,psychomotor  and affective domain of his pupils.
Functions of educational philosophy 
*Educational philosophy helps to influence a philosophical outlook towards all aspect of human life ,is the teachers  as well as the learners .This would help teachers become more efficient. This is turn would enable them to lead a better life in its totality
*Educational philosophy ,it being applied philosophy would make teachers and learners reflective thinkers ,reflection being the spirit of philosophical thought.
*The philosophical foundation of education would enable education to perform all its function viz preservation , tearmission and transformation of human cultural heritage.
*Problem solving ,synthetic view and critical thinking are the functions of educational philosophy.
?19.Explain the social aspects of the philosophy of basic education.
Basic education or wardha scheme of education is a rational system of education put forward by mahatmagandhi in 1937 as a revolt against the sterile ,book -centred ,examination oriented system of educationa propagated by the British .This system is called by the name “wardha Scheme” because that salient features of this scheme of education was first presented by Gandhiji in the all india National Education Conference held at wardha (near nagpur,maharashtra )
on the 22nd  and 23rd of october ,1937.
Gandhiji used the term basic to described his scheme of education because it is intimetely related with the basic needs and interest of indian children . Moreover ,it is closely related to the basic occupations of the people living in the villages .it is an educational scheme for common man who constitutes the base or backbone of our country.
Features of Basic education
*Free and compulsory education
 *Educating through mother tongue.
*Educating through craft.
*Education to be self supporting.
The philosophy behind the basic education is a blending of the traditional indian values and the practical realities of the modern world .It can be seen that it includes the essential principles of realism ,idealism ,naturalism ,pragmatism and extentialism,of all theories .It is down to earth practical in relation to the problems and condition existing in india . Philosophy of basic education is naturalistic in its settings idealistic in its aim pragmatic in its method and humanistic in its out look.
Merits of Basic Education
(1)Compulsory free education:
This scheme aimed at imparting compulsory and free education to the children of 7-14 years. Education was also free from the economic poverty of the parents because they did not have to pay for the education of their children.The educands themselves earned the cost of their education.
(2)No Wastage :
There is no wastage involved in this scheme of education.
(3)Citizenship traits:
Children acquire traits of citizenship and learn to solve the problems of their future life .
(4)Close to life :
Basic education has close relationship with life .It creates responsiblities among the children.
(5)Productive:
This education shall be imparted through some handicraft or productive activity.This handicraft or productive activity shall be the means as well as the end .Other subjects taught shall be related to it.



(6)Mother tongue:
The medium of instruction shall be the mother tongue instead of english.
(7)Ideals:
The scheme rings with the ideals of nationalism ,patriotism,secularism etc.
Demerits of Basic education
(1) Not good for urban people
 (2)Industrialisation of education
(3) No co-relation and general education
(4)Insufficient for preserving cultural heritage
(5)Defects in the time table
(6) Costly
(7)Unpsychological
Basic education is significant as it is a self-supporting system .The core aim of basic education is relevant in the modern indian educational context for the following reasons.
(a)It laid a strong emphasis on manual work
(b) The medium of education should be mother tongue.
(c)The basic scheme of education is imparted through some local craft or productive work.
(d)Basic education is self -supported through some productive work.
Education is highly expensive now a days .Basic education ,the running expensive of which is supported by the productive works is a practical remedy to reduce the huge running expensive of now a days education.  



20)Explain education as interdiscipilnary in nature and its significance.?
Interdisciplines permeate the field of education experienceacrisisofbeingcolonized.After serious rethinking inter disciplines were widely believed to do more good than harmto education.Thereforeeducationisbeginningtotransformfromacolonytoanempire.In this transformation education finds it nessary to break the traditional disciplinary boundaries and make it a field in which interdisciplinary communication is contributory to enrichment of scholarship.Interdisplinarity involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines in to one activity.It is about creating something new by crossing boundaries and thinking across them.The term interdisciplinary is applied with in education and training pedagogies to describe studies that use methods and insights of srveral established disciplines or traditional fields of study.
Educationandphilosophy
As a field of study philosophy is one of the oldest disciplines.It is considered as a mother of all sciences. In fact it is at the root of all knowledge. Education like philosophy is also closely related to humanlife. Therefore being ani mportant life activity education is also greaty influenced by philosophy.
Educationandsciology
Emiledurkheim was the first person who indicated the need for a sociological approach to education. He considered education to be essentially social in character and in its functions and that as a resul t the theory of education relates more clearly to sociology than any other
science. Educational sociology is by definition. Discipline which studies education sociology calls with the premise that it recognizes education as a social fact a process and an institution having a social function and being determined socially.
Educationandpsychology
Psychology applied in education is the study of human  learn in educational settingt he effectiveness of educational interventions the psychology of teaching and the social psychology of school as organizations. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to
cognitive science and the learning sciences .In universities department of educational psychology are usually how used with in faculties of education possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology  textbook.
Educationandeconomic
Economic ofe ducation is the study of economic issues relating to education including the demand for education and the financing and provision of education.The reare two very basic resons for expecting to find some link between education and economic.At amorespecific level a wide range of economice studies indicates that the incomes individuals can command depend on their level of education.
EducationandHistory
To understand school we must view the  main historical perspectives.It tried to explain how the history of humanity has led to the devleopmen to school as we know them today.The history of in digenous education in india act as a basis of all eductional policies and reforms in india.
Hence the study of past education guides the future aspect of education.
Educationandpoliticalscience
As an academic discipline the study of politics in education has two main roots.The first root is based on theories from political science while the second  root is an chored in organizational theory . Political science attempts to explain how societies and social organization use power to
establish regulations all ocate  resourses. The relationship between politics and educationis important. Historically the relationship between politics and education has worked well.
EducationandAnthropology
The focus of the anthropology of education is  cultural transmission.Educational system is society attempt to promte stability and  ensure its  own survival by passing on its own survival by passing on its insight sideal,skill assumption and goal to the next generation.It is imossible to deny the enmeshment of education with anthropological factors such as culture economics health and politics.
?21. Compare the educational ideas of Rousseau and Paulo Friere.
Paulo Freire (1921-1997)
Paulo Freire was one of the most influential philosophers of education of the twentieth century. He worked wholeheartedly to help the people both through his philosophy and his practice of critical pedagogy. A native of Brazil, Freire’s goal was to eradicate illiteracy among people from previously colonized countries and continents. His insights were rooted in the social and political realities of children and grand children of former slaves.
Freire’s Philosophy
Those who attempt to redress the ills of the suffering of humanity are not leaders who work for the people, but who work with the people as their servants. This is Freire’s philosophy which he prefers to be known as ‘scientific Revolutionary Humanism’. This essentially a philosophy involving techniques of adult and non formal education, though the message is applicable to any form of education.
Educational Philosophy
Freire offers in his book Pedagogy of the Oppressed a detailed analysis of the shortcomings of the prescriptive style of teaching. In prescriptive teaching, the teacher assumes an authoritarian role. Freire refers this as the Banking System. In the banking system of the education the man’s transaction is the act of transferring information from teacher’s heads and depositing in the student’s heads. Here the students are the depositories and the teacher the depositor. In opposition to this domesticating system, Freire suggests a problem posing education which will break the vertical pattern characteristic of the traditional teacher-student relations, by establishing a horizontal dialogue. According to Freire “No one can teach anyone else, no one learns alone, people learn together, acting in and on their world.”
Freire feels that previously the role of education was to maintain the Culture of Silence. But education should aim at bringing about a new awareness of self, a sense of dignity. According to Freire, education should promote the Culture of Freedom by means of which men and woman can deal with their environment critically and creatively and can participate in the transformation of their life and society effectively.
Main Publications
Paulo Freire summarized his philosophy, methods of work and the abstract realities of his working environment in a book titled ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed’, Cultural Action for Freedom, and Education for Critical Consciousness. The Politics of Education, Pedagogy of Hope, Pedagogy of Freedom are other famous books.
Major Contributions
Freire’s ideas are especially relevant to the teachers and educators in developing countries. This is especially true in case of adult, non formal and extension education programmes, though the values of his philosophy and techniques cannot be ruled out for the education of the younger age groups as well. He advocates that the hearts of persons should be won through love, nonviolence and peaceful resistance and radical action. He converted the classroom an arena of empowerment for the poor and the oppressed.
Critical Pedagogy
Critical pedagogy is an educational approach for developing critical consciousness in the learner. Critical consciousness is the ability to critically perceive the cause of social, political and economic oppression and to take action against the oppressive elements of society. It is an awareness that enables the individual to change his lives and realities.
This teaching approach attempts to help students question and challenge domination, and the beliefs and practices that dominate. Critical pedagogy is defined as an educational methodology that seeks to increase student awareness of the hidden curriculum’s inequalities and multiple forms of oppression that exist in the society, and encourage them to take step towards creating a more democratic and equitable society.
Problem Posing Education
Problem posing is an alternative method of education suggested by Paulo Freire instead of the existing authoritarian and oppressing banking education. It is based on the principle that a student learns better when he creates knowledge and when knowledge is created for him. The term Problem Posing is used because in this type of education the whole learning is driven by a problem that pops up from the life situation of the learners. The responsibility of the teacher is to use students thought and speech as the base for developing critical understanding of personal experience, unequal condition in society, and existing knowledge.
JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778)
 All that we lack at birth and need when grown up is given, to us by education. This education comes to us from nature, from men or from things. The internal development of our faculties and the organs is the education of nature. The use we learn to make of this development is the education of men. (Cahn 155) These are the words of a man who has had a propound influence on the field of education. This man is none other than Jean Jacques Rousseau.
Jean Jacques Rousseau was born of upper class parentage in the simple Protestant city of Geneva. His father, a watchmaker, was descendent from a Parisian family, and inherited much of the Romanticism, mercurial temperament, and love of pleasures of his forbears. The mother of Rousseau, too, although the daughter of a clergy man, was of a morbid and sentimental disposition. She died at the birth of Jean Rousseau. (Graves 77) Rousseau was brought up by an indulgent aunt, who never bothered to correct him when he faltered. She completely failed to instill in him any moral principles. This tendency for a want of self-control was furthered increased by his father, who had an equally careless attitude. When Rousseau was only six, his father would sit with him night after night and read to him the most silliest and sensational romances, which were left behind by his wife. It is for this reason that extreme emotionality, imaginativeness and precocity were nurtured within the child at a really early age.
Rousseau’s Philosophy
Roussseau was the champion of naturalism and pleaded for liberty, fraternity and equality. In Emile, we can see a detailed description of his educational ideas. According to Rousseau education is a process of developing into an enjoyable, rational, harmoniously blended, useful and hence natural life. To live is not merely to breathe; it is to act, to make use of our organs, senses, our faculties and of all those are ours, which in turn will give us the feeling of an existence. Discipline is acquired only by natural consequences.
Educational Philosophy
According to Rousseau education is life itself, not a preparation for a future stage in life. Education should result in real development- that is, development of the nature and virtues of the learner to the highest level.
Positive Education and Negative Education
He has divided education into two types- positive education and negative education. Positive Education is the education that was prevalent during early periods and during the tenure of his life time. It believed in improving and correcting the nature of the child because it was assumed that the child is born with vices to be corrected by education. It tried to impose civilization upon him. It did not recognize the child’s individuality. The emphasize was on bookish knowledge and verbal instruction. Too much stress was laid on duty, morality and religion and strict discipline was imposed upon children. Rousseau has described these educationists as unnatural and inhuman and advised the educationanists to act against it. Since he advised people to act against Positive Education, the education envisaged by him is often qualified as Negative Education. Negative Education is the education that is imparted according to the tendencies and faculties of the child. It develops the sense organs. It does not teach the child the qualities of an adult, but safeguards against evils. Rousseau introduced Negative Education to fight these false notions and to establish the fact that the child is essentially good, as whatever he has is natural and, therefore, pure and beautiful. He has suggested that the child up to the age of 12 should not be given verbal or bookish education at all. The child should be given opportunity to play, jump, roam and live in the open air. Moral instruction should be kept away from him and he will achieve moral aims by his own actions. Negative education is self education. It is the education of the sense organs and the body. This may be more possible in the playground rather than in the classroom. According to Rousseau man’s development may be classified into the following four stages.
Infancy        - from birth to 5 years
Childhood        - from 5 to 12 years
Adolescence    - from 12 to 15 years
Youth        - from 15 to 25 years
Rousseau has suggested education suitable for all these stages, in his book Emile.
Emile
Emile was first published in 1760. Rousseau’s main discourse on education is summarized in Emile. It is full of revolutionary ideas. In the words of Lord Merley, “it is the charter of emancipation of the children.”  In this book Rousseau tries to show how the evils of society can be eradicated by education. The basic philosophy of education that Rousseau advocates in the Emile is rooted in the notion that human beings are good by nature. In Emile he explains how his negative and naturalistic principles can be applied to education. It is an attempt to teach children the proper methods of education. It has five parts, out of which four are devoted to various stages of education of an imaginary child Emile and the fifth one deals with the education of an imaginary wife for Emile, named Sophy. Emile aroused reactions everywhere, favorable as well as unfavorable. France and Switzerland banned this book. It was burnt at so many places.
His stages of development, which is the key to his philosophy, only meant that a child should be allowed to develop slowly. Nature would teach the child. This did not mean that the child had to be left alone; but rather that nature had to be used by, the teacher, as the main instrument in teaching the child. Added to this his concepts of negative education, the curriculum at different stages, etc. were all meant to bring about something in the rather stagnant system of education.

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