MEd04 Introduction To Educational Research And Statistics
MEd04
Introduction To Educational Research And Statistics
Part A
1,what is educational research?
A ,Educational
research is the scientific method of study educational problems
According to j.w
best Education research is that activity which is directed towards
development of a
science of behaviour in educational situations.The ultimate aim
of such a
science is to provide knowledge that will permit the educator to achieve
his goals by the
most effective methods.
Educational
research is characterized as follows
· It is highly
purposeful
· It deals with
educational problems regarding students and teachers as well
· It is
precise,objective,scientific and systematic process of investigation
· It attempts to
organize data quantitatively and qualitatively to arrive at
statistical
inferences
· It discovers
new facts in new perspective i.e,it generates new knowledge.
2,What is crosssectional study?
A, it is a
research method often used in developmental psychology but also
utilized in many
other areas including social science and education.This
type of study
utilizes different groups of people who differ in the variable of
interest but
share the characteristic such as socio economic status,
educational
background, ethinicity. Cross sectional research are
observational in
nature and are known as descriptive research, not
causal/relational.
Characteristics
of cross sectional research
· Takes place at
a single point in time
· Does not
involve manipulating variables
· Allows
researchers to look at numerous things at once
(age,income,gender)
· Often used to
look at the prevalence of something in a given
population
· Large scale
and representative sampling
3,Differentiate population and sample?
A, A population,
in statistics and other areas of mathematics , is a discrete
group of
people,animals or things that can be identified by at least one
common
characteristic for the purposes of data collection and analysis.
A sample ,in the
context of scientific research and statistics, is a
representative
subset of a population.
In statistics
and qualitative research methodology, a data sample is a set of
data collected
from a statistical population by a defined procedure.
Typically the
population is very large marking a census or a complete
enumeration of
all values in the population either imparactical or
impossible.
4,What are the different types of data?
A,
classification is the process of arranging the data into different group or
classes based on
the similarities for example,the processof grouping of data
according to the
males and females.
There are
different types of data
Primary data
Secondary data
Qualitative data
Quantitative
data
Continuous data
Discrete data
Chronological
data
Geographical
data
Statistical data
5 , Define Median?
A, median is the
middle score of a distribution. In other words, it is
the score
situated exactly in the middle when the scores are
arranged in the
ascending/descending order of them magnitude.
Merits of median
· Very big and
very small values do not affect it.
· It is the
actual value.
· Not affected
by extreme scores.
Formulas of
median
Median=[n+1/2]th
observation{if n is odd}
Median=L+[n/2cf]*i
F
Part B
8. Write a short note on Basic Research and applied research
ACTION RESEARCH
1. Purpose:
The improvement in school and classroom teaching process.
2. Investigator: The peson is in the job teacher, principal, inspector and
administrator.
3. Problem: It is a local problem. It
is a practical problem. The problem is selected and finalized by the worker
himself. No external approval is
required.
4. Hypothesis: The action hypotheses are formulated on the base of the causes
of the problem. An action hypothesis needs one design of research one
hypothesis is tested at one time.
5.Design: The design of action research is flexible.
6. Sampling: There is no problem of sampling in action research, accidental or
incidental sample is used.
7. Data collection: Observation and teacher made tests are used for collecting
data is action research.
8. Analysis of Data: The data are analysed by using statisticl technique to
draw some results.
9. Conclusions: The conclusions are in
the form of remedies measures for improving the current pratises.
10. Evaluation: The action research project is evaluated by the investigator
himself and no external evaluation is required.
11. Finances: The finances for the
action research are met out by the school or investigator himself. The
extension dept. of NCERT are also financing such project.
12. Training:The teachers are trained in B.Ed. and L.T programmes for the
knowledge and skill of action research concept.
13. Schope:The field of action research work is very narrow. It deals with the
problems of classroom teaching & school. The field is local.
14. Examples: The prolem of assignment, spellings, pronounciation and poor
attendance. The enrolment of school is reducing rapidly are the major problems
of actions. Research is the field of education.
15. Importance: The major importance for solving the local problems of school
and classroom teaching
Fundamental Research
Contributes new knowledge in the form of new theory facts and truth.
The investigator should have postgraduate degree in the subject. He should have specialization in the field.
He amy or may not be related with the problem.
The problem is broad and reltes to the broad field of education. The problem may be selected by the researches
but it is approved by the external experts.
The hypotheses are formulates on the basis of some rationale. All the hypotheses
are tested by one design of research.
The design is rigid and it can not be changed.
The knowledge and training of sampling techniques are essential cesually
probability sampling techniques is employed.
Usually the standardized teste are used for collecting data in basic research.
The parametric statistical techniques are used for analyzing the data.
The conclusions are in the form of generatlization. The generalization may be a
new theory or new fact or new truth or new interpretation.
A panel of examiners is appointed for examining the report of fundamental
research it may approved, or revised or rejected.
The U.G.C. is awarding JRF and senior research fellowship for fundamental
research in all the subject.
There is a compulsory paper of Research Methods and statistics at Med and
Mp.Phil levels for the knowledge and understanding of research methodology.
During this programme the students have to submit a dessertatie for the
practical knowledge of conducting research work.
The field for basic research is broad It deals with the base problems of
education and teaching learning situations.
a) Teacher skills for different subjects teachers.
b) Behavour pattern or effective teachers and creative teachers. Difference
between trained and untrained teachers performances. The major importance is to
answer the basic questions and contribution to the field of knowledge by
solving the basic problems of education.
9. Explain any
four type of variables?
Variables: A variable is a
concept or extract idea that can be described in measurable terms. In research, it referes to measurable
characteristics, qualities, traits or attributes of a particular individual,
object or situations being stated.
Independent variable: These are variables which are manipulated or controlled
or changed. It is manipulated to whose a change to other variables. Ex: a
study of the effect of mastery learning on reading of 5^{th} graders.
The effect of mastery learning, the researcher is trying to determine whether
there is cause and effect relationship, so the kind of mastery learning is
varied to see whether it produces
difference scores on reading achievement test.
We call this as a manipulated independent variable.
Dependent variable: The variable which changes on account of independent
variable is known as dependent variable. It is the output or response
variable. It is the observed aspects of
behavior of the organism that has been stimulated. It is measured an observed to determine to
the effect of the independent variable.
Extraneous Variables: Independent variable that are not related to the pupose
of the study, but may effect the dependent variable are termed as extraneous
variable.
Confounding variable: A variable that obscures the effects of another variable
is called a confounding variable.
12.
What are the different types of measures of central tendency? Explain
any one of them.
The tendency of
a group about distribution is named as central tendency and the typical score
lying between the extremes and shared by most of the students is referred to as measures of central tendency. In this way a
measure of central tendency as Tabe (1955) defines is a “sort of average or
typical value of the items in the series and its function is to summarize the
series in terms of this average value”.
The most common
measures of central tendency are :
·Mean
·Median
·Mode
Each of them in its own
way ,can be called a representative of the characteristics of whole group.
Mode:
Mode is defined as the
size of a variable which occurs most frequently. It is the point on the score
scale that correspond to the maximum frequency of the distribution. In any
series, it is the value of the item which is most characteristic or common and
is usually repeated the maximum number of times.
Ex: 25,29,24,25,27,25,28,25,29
Mode= 25
Computation of
mode for grouped data
2. Investigator: The peson is in the job teacher, principal, inspector and administrator.
3. Problem: It is a local problem. It is a practical problem. The problem is selected and finalized by the worker himself. No external approval is required.
4. Hypothesis: The action hypotheses are formulated on the base of the causes of the problem. An action hypothesis needs one design of research one hypothesis is tested at one time.
5.Design: The design of action research is flexible.
6. Sampling: There is no problem of sampling in action research, accidental or incidental sample is used.
7. Data collection: Observation and teacher made tests are used for collecting data is action research.
8. Analysis of Data: The data are analysed by using statisticl technique to draw some results.
9. Conclusions: The conclusions are in the form of remedies measures for improving the current pratises.
10. Evaluation: The action research project is evaluated by the investigator himself and no external evaluation is required.
11. Finances: The finances for the action research are met out by the school or investigator himself. The extension dept. of NCERT are also financing such project.
12. Training:The teachers are trained in B.Ed. and L.T programmes for the knowledge and skill of action research concept.
13. Schope:The field of action research work is very narrow. It deals with the problems of classroom teaching & school. The field is local.
14. Examples: The prolem of assignment, spellings, pronounciation and poor attendance. The enrolment of school is reducing rapidly are the major problems of actions. Research is the field of education.
15. Importance: The major importance for solving the local problems of school and classroom teaching
Fundamental Research
Contributes new knowledge in the form of new theory facts and truth.
The investigator should have postgraduate degree in the subject. He should have specialization in the field. He amy or may not be related with the problem.
The problem is broad and reltes to the broad field of education. The problem may be selected by the researches but it is approved by the external experts.
The hypotheses are formulates on the basis of some rationale. All the hypotheses are tested by one design of research.
The design is rigid and it can not be changed.
The knowledge and training of sampling techniques are essential cesually probability sampling techniques is employed.
Usually the standardized teste are used for collecting data in basic research.
The parametric statistical techniques are used for analyzing the data.
The conclusions are in the form of generatlization. The generalization may be a new theory or new fact or new truth or new interpretation.
A panel of examiners is appointed for examining the report of fundamental research it may approved, or revised or rejected.
The U.G.C. is awarding JRF and senior research fellowship for fundamental research in all the subject.
There is a compulsory paper of Research Methods and statistics at Med and Mp.Phil levels for the knowledge and understanding of research methodology. During this programme the students have to submit a dessertatie for the practical knowledge of conducting research work.
The field for basic research is broad It deals with the base problems of education and teaching learning situations.
a) Teacher skills for different subjects teachers.
b) Behavour pattern or effective teachers and creative teachers. Difference between trained and untrained teachers performances. The major importance is to answer the basic questions and contribution to the field of knowledge by solving the basic problems of education.
Variables: A variable is a concept or extract idea that can be described in measurable terms. In research, it referes to measurable characteristics, qualities, traits or attributes of a particular individual, object or situations being stated.
Independent variable: These are variables which are manipulated or controlled or changed. It is manipulated to whose a change to other variables. Ex: a study of the effect of mastery learning on reading of 5^{th} graders. The effect of mastery learning, the researcher is trying to determine whether there is cause and effect relationship, so the kind of mastery learning is varied to see whether it produces difference scores on reading achievement test. We call this as a manipulated independent variable.
Dependent variable: The variable which changes on account of independent variable is known as dependent variable. It is the output or response variable. It is the observed aspects of behavior of the organism that has been stimulated. It is measured an observed to determine to the effect of the independent variable.
Extraneous Variables: Independent variable that are not related to the pupose of the study, but may effect the dependent variable are termed as extraneous variable.
Confounding variable: A variable that obscures the effects of another variable is called a confounding variable.
Mode =
3Median 2 Mean

Another way:
Mode= L +* i

L = Lower limit
of the model class
i= class
interval
f_{1} = frequency of
the class (lower limit > model
class)
f_{1} = frequency of
the class (lower limit < model class)
13. What is an Ogive? How it is
constructed?
Cumulative
percentage frequency curve or Ogive is the graphical representation of a
cumulative percentage frequency distribution. It is essentially a line graph
drawn on a piece of graph paper by plotting actual upper limit of the class
intervals on the xaxis and their representative cumulative percentage
frequencies on the yaxis. Ogive differs from the cumulative frequency graph in
the sence that here we plot cumulative percentage frequencies on the yaxis in
the place of cumulative frequency.
14. Write short note on different scales of measurement.
Several
types of scales are associated for measurement. The distinction among the
scales is important because they underscore the limitations of certain data
collected on the same scales but not on others. Four types of scales are used
for measurement which are:
Ø Nominal
scale
Ø Ordinal
scale
Ø Interval
scale
Ø Ratio
scale
Nominal
scale: Nominal
scale consists of a set of categories that have different names. Measurement on
a nominal scale label and categorize observations.
· If
two individuals are measured on a nominal scale,it is possible to determine
measurements are different, one cannot determine how big is the difference. So
one cannot say that one measurement is more/less than the other.
Ordinal
scale : The
ordinal scale consists of a set of categories that are organized in an ordered
sequence. Measurement on an ordinal scale rank observation in terms of
size/magnitude.
· Often
ordinal scale consists of a series of ranks(first,second,….so on).often
categories are identified by verbal labels like small, medium and large.
Interval
scale : An interval scale consists of a set of categories
that are all intervals of exactly the same size. With an interval scale,equal
differences between numbers on the scale reflect equal differences in
magnitude. However, ratios of magnitude are not meaningful. Another
characterist of an interval scale is that it has an arbitrary zero point.
Specially ,zero doesn’t indicate the total absence of the variable being
measured.
· Like
in temperature, 0 degrees temperature does not mean that there is no
temperature.
Ratio
scale : The
ratio scale is an interval scale with additional features of an absolute zero
point. With ratio scale, ratios of numbers do reflect ratios of magnitude. In
ratio scale, value of zero, indicates noneof variable being measured.
· One
can say that one measurement is three times larger than other/one can say that
one score is only half as large as another.
15. what are z scores and
t scores? How can you transform raw scores into z scores and t scores?
From
educational and psychological tests, quite often we obtain numerical scores for
assessing the ability and capacity of students. These scores are termed as raw
scores.the most general and frequently used derived or transformed scores in
education and psychology are the following :
1. Standard
scores or Z scores
2. T
scores
3. C
scores and stanine scores
Standard
scores: In a
distribution, deviations of the scores from its mean expressed in σ(standard
deviation of the distribution) units are called standard scores. These are also
referred to as σ scores or z scores. A
standard score or z score of any raw score tells us where and how far above or
below the mean that particular score lies in the distribution. Since most of
the distributions of the scores obtained from educational and psychological tests
are normal or near normal, it is quite customary to assume normality for any
set of raw scores that we need to transform into standard or z scores.
Converting raw scores
into standard or z scores :
For converting raw scores belonging to a
distribution into a z score, the steps to be taken are as follows:
1. First,
compute the mean (M) and standard deviation () of the distribution.
2. Then
substitute the value of M and in the
following formula for computing z (the standard score)
z
= X
= Raw scores
M = Mean of distribution
σ = SD of distribution
Merits:
Standard scores have essentially the same meaning for all tests.
Transformation
of raw scores into z scores does not change the shape or characteristics of the
distribution.
Standard scores can be
safely used for interindividual and intra individual comparisons.
Demerits:
In
these scores, plus and minus signs are used. These can be overlooked or misunderstood.
Decimal points used may
create difficulty.
T
scores :
This scale was derived and first used by William A. McCall and named as
T scale in honour of Thorndike and Terman. In the measurement of z score, the
starting point is the mean of the distribution, i.e, zero, and the unit of
measurement is 1σ. Travelling from zero on this scale to both sides may involve
minus and plus signs, and the use of unit of measurement, 1σ, may carry decimal
points. To overcome such limitations of σ scores, a more useful scale named T
scale may be used. In this scale, McCall made use of another type of score,
slightly different from the standard or z scores. These T scores may be defined
as normalized standard scores converted into a distribution with a mean of 50
and σ of 10.
Converting
raw score into T score :
Compute mean and standard
deviation of that distribution.
Compute the value of σ
or z and once we know the value of z, we can compute its equivalent T score
with the help of the formula
T = 10z + 50
Part C
18 a. Explain the needs and importance of
hypothesis in research, explain different ways of stating hypothesis with the
help of illusions.
b. Identify the use of
research questions.
Hypothesis is a supposition or proposed
explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for
further investigation. The formulation of hypothesis is a prerequisite of any
successful research for it enables the researcher to get rid of vague, informed
ideas or opinions and meaningless interpretations.Therefore, hypothesis plays a
pivotal role in scientific research.
Definitions
Goode
and Hatt are of the opinion that a hypothesis is a “ proposition which can be
put to test to determine its validity”.
“A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the
relation between two or more variables”.
(Kerlinger 1956)
A
hypothesis is a statement or explanation that is suggested by knowledge or
observation but has not , yet been proved or disproved. [Macleod Clark J
and Hockey L 1981 ]
Need
and importance
1. A hypothesis is very powerful tool of
educational enquiry. It tells what specific aspects
of a research problem to investigate.
2. A hypothesis tells what data to be collect
and not to collect,there by providing focus to the study.
3. The
construction of a hypothesis enhances objectivity in a study .
4. It unable to
add the formulation of a theory specifically to conclude what is true or what
is false.
5. It provides a clear
and adequate explanation of the facts connected with the hypothesis.
6. It suggests
experiments and encourages observation.
7. It limits the scope
of the enquiry to a manageable area, so that it facilities economies in
time, money and effort.
8. The verification of
knowledge of laws and appropriate explanations are easily attained when
hypothesis are formed in the beginning.
9. The conclusions and
inferences drawn by a hypothesis play a significant role in the advancement of
knowledge.
10. The significance of an object or
event can be determined by a hypothesis.
Ways of stating hypothesis
There are two ways of stating research
hypothesis.
1. Directional 2. Non  Directional
Directional hypothesis
It predict the
specific relationship among two or more valuables or groups.
Examples :
1. IQ scores will
Correlate in a positive manner with self esteem scores .
2. Cats will work less
frequently than dogs.
3. At the end of 1st
standard children who attended at least 2 years of Montessori preschool will
have higher reading comprehension abilities compared to children who did not
attend preschool at all.
Non
Directional hypothesis
It predict that there will be differences
among two or more groups , but do not specify the direction of the difference.
Examples:
1. Men and women will
differ in there recall of phone numbers .
2. Cats will bark less
frequently than dogs.
3. At the end of 1st standard there will be
difference between the reading comprehension abilities of children who attended
at least two years of Montessori preschool and school children who did
not attended preschool at all .
Research
questions
A Research question is
a clear, focused, concise, complex and arguable question around
which we centre our research. Research questions can concern ,for
example prediction, understanding, exploring causation, testing,What,
what if, who, when,why, how, explanation, description, relations [between
variables, people, events], comparisons,correlations, processes factors,
evaluations, function or purpose, how to achieve certain outcomes, properties
and characteristics, how to do something, alternatives to something, how to improve
or developing something.
Use
of research questions
 It is the heart of one's thesis to which one always returns when one loses track during further research writing process.
 It is the foundation of research process.
 Everything begins with a question.
 It help the investigators focus their research by providing a path through the research and investigation process .
 The specificity of a well developed research question helps writers avoid the “all  about” paper and work towards supporting a specific, arguable thesis.
 Research question focuses attention on to the relationship of particular thesis and concepts ‘How does gender related to career choices of members of different religions?’
Characteristics of a good research question
1. Relevant
The question will be of academic and
intellectual interests to people in the field chosen.
2. Manageable
It
need to be realistic about the scope and scale of the study. the question must
be with in the ability of time and resources .
3. Substantial
and original
The
questions should not be copied from anywhere else. It should show the
imagination and ability to construct and develop research issues.
4. Consistent with
the requirements of the assessment.
The
question must allow to satisfy the process outcomes.
5. Clear and simple
The
complexity of a question can frequently hide unclear thoughts and lead to a
confused research process.
6. Interesting
The
question needs to intrigue and maintain interest throughout the project.
There are two traps to avoid.
Some
questions are convenient
The best can come up with
when you asked to state a question on a form, maybe or perhaps the question
fits in with units so we decide it
will suffice.
some
questions are facts
They arise out of a particular set of personal circumstances, for
example a job application. Once The circumstances change one can lose
enthusiasm for the topic and it becomes very tedious.
Hypothesis is a necessary element in any scientific thought
process. new theory does not imply Revolutionary step all together there
are elements of continuity and innovation.
Albert Einstein observed
‘Creating a new theory is not like destroying an old barn and erecting a
skyscraper in its place; it is rather like climbing a mountain, gaining
new and wider new and wider views,discovering new connections between our
starting points and its rich environment .But the points from which we started
still exists and can be seen although it appears smaller and forms a tiny part
of our broad view gained by the mastery of the obstacles on our adventurous way
up’.
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