MEd-04 Introduction To Educational Research And Statistics


Introduction To Educational Research And Statistics

Part -A


1,what is educational research?
A ,Educational research is the scientific method of study educational problems
According to j.w best Education research is that activity which is directed towards
development of a science of behaviour in educational situations.The ultimate aim
of such a science is to provide knowledge that will permit the educator to achieve
his goals by the most effective methods.
Educational research is characterized as follows
· It is highly purposeful
· It deals with educational problems regarding students and teachers as well
· It is precise,objective,scientific and systematic process of investigation
· It attempts to organize data quantitatively and qualitatively to arrive at
statistical inferences
· It discovers new facts in new perspective i.e,it generates new knowledge.
2,What is cross-sectional study?
A, it is a research method often used in developmental psychology but also
utilized in many other areas including social science and education.This
type of study utilizes different groups of people who differ in the variable of
interest but share the characteristic such as socio economic status,
educational background, ethinicity. Cross sectional research are
observational in nature and are known as descriptive research, not
Characteristics of cross sectional research
· Takes place at a single point in time
· Does not involve manipulating variables
· Allows researchers to look at numerous things at once
· Often used to look at the prevalence of something in a given
· Large scale and representative sampling
3,Differentiate population and sample?
A, A population, in statistics and other areas of mathematics , is a discrete
group of people,animals or things that can be identified by at least one
common characteristic for the purposes of data collection and analysis.
A sample ,in the context of scientific research and statistics, is a
representative subset of a population.
In statistics and qualitative research methodology, a data sample is a set of
data collected from a statistical population by a defined procedure.
Typically the population is very large marking a census or a complete
enumeration of all values in the population either imparactical or
4,What are the different types of data?
A, classification is the process of arranging the data into different group or
classes based on the similarities for example,the processof grouping of data
according to the males and females.
There are different types of data
Primary data
Secondary data
Qualitative data
Quantitative data
Continuous data
Discrete data
Chronological data
Geographical data
Statistical data

5 , Define Median?
A, median is the middle score of a distribution. In other words, it is
the score situated exactly in the middle when the scores are
arranged in the ascending/descending order of them magnitude.
Merits of median
· Very big and very small values do not affect it.
· It is the actual value.
· Not affected by extreme scores.
Formulas of median
Median=[n+1/2]th observation{if n is odd}


Part B

8. Write a short note on Basic Research and applied research
1.    Purpose:- The improvement in school and classroom teaching process.
2. Investigator:- The peson is in the job teacher, principal, inspector and administrator.
3.  Problem:- It is a local problem. It is a practical problem. The problem is selected and finalized by the worker himself.  No external approval is required.
4. Hypothesis:- The action hypotheses are formulated on the base of the causes of the problem. An action hypothesis needs one design of research one hypothesis is tested at one time.
5.Design:- The design of action research is flexible.
6. Sampling:- There is no problem of sampling in action research, accidental or incidental sample is used.
7. Data collection:- Observation and teacher made tests are used for collecting data is action research.
8. Analysis of Data:- The data are analysed by using statisticl technique to draw some results.
9.  Conclusions:- The conclusions are in the form of remedies measures for improving the current pratises.
10. Evaluation:- The action research project is evaluated by the investigator himself and no external evaluation is required.
11.  Finances:- The finances for the action research are met out by the school or investigator himself. The extension dept. of NCERT are also financing such project.
12. Training:-The teachers are trained in B.Ed. and L.T programmes for the knowledge and skill of action research concept.
13. Schope:The field of action research work is very narrow. It deals with the problems of classroom teaching & school. The field is local.
14. Examples:- The prolem of assignment, spellings, pronounciation and poor attendance. The enrolment of school is reducing rapidly are the major problems of actions. Research is the field of education.
15. Importance:- The major importance for solving the local problems of school and classroom teaching
Fundamental Research
Contributes new knowledge in the form of new theory facts and truth.
The investigator should have postgraduate degree in the subject.  He should have specialization in the field. He amy or may not be related with the problem.
The problem is broad and reltes to the broad field of education.  The problem may be selected by the researches but it is approved by the external experts.
The hypotheses are formulates on the basis of some rationale. All the hypotheses are tested by one design of research.
The design is rigid and it can not be changed.
The knowledge and training of sampling techniques are essential cesually probability sampling techniques is employed.
Usually the standardized teste are used for collecting data in basic research.
The parametric statistical techniques are used for analyzing the data.
The conclusions are in the form of generatlization. The generalization may be a new theory or new fact or new truth or new interpretation.
A panel of examiners is appointed for examining the report of fundamental research it may approved, or revised or rejected.
The U.G.C. is awarding JRF and senior research fellowship for fundamental research in all the subject.
There is a compulsory paper of Research Methods and statistics at Med and Mp.Phil levels for the knowledge and understanding of research methodology. During this programme the students have to submit a dessertatie for the practical knowledge of conducting research work.
The field for basic research is broad It deals with the base problems of education and teaching learning situations.
a) Teacher skills for different subjects teachers.
b) Behavour pattern or effective teachers and creative teachers. Difference between trained and untrained teachers performances. The major importance is to answer the basic questions and contribution to the field of knowledge by solving the basic problems of education.
9. Explain any four type of variables?
Variables:-  A variable is a concept or extract idea that can be described in measurable terms.  In research, it referes to measurable characteristics, qualities, traits or attributes of a particular individual, object or situations being stated.
Independent variable:- These are variables which are manipulated or controlled or changed. It is manipulated to whose a change to other variables. Ex:- a study of the effect of mastery learning on reading of 5th graders. The effect of mastery learning, the researcher is trying to determine whether there is cause and effect relationship, so the kind of mastery learning is varied  to see whether it produces difference scores on reading achievement test.  We call this as a manipulated independent variable.
Dependent variable:- The variable which changes on account of independent variable is known as dependent variable. It is the output or response variable.  It is the observed aspects of behavior of the organism that has been stimulated.  It is measured an observed to determine to the effect of the independent variable.
Extraneous Variables:- Independent variable that are not related to the pupose of the study, but may effect the dependent variable are termed as extraneous variable.
Confounding variable:- A variable that obscures the effects of another variable is called a confounding variable.

12.        What are the different types of measures of central tendency? Explain any one of them.

                                The tendency of a group about distribution is named as central tendency and the typical score lying between the extremes and shared by most of the students is referred to as  measures of central tendency. In this way a measure of central tendency as Tabe (1955) defines is a “sort of average or typical value of the items in the series and its function is to summarize the series in terms of this average value”.
                                The most common measures of central tendency are :
                       Each of them in its own way ,can be called a representative of the characteristics of whole group.

                        Mode is defined as the size of a variable which occurs most frequently. It is the point on the score scale that correspond to the maximum frequency of the distribution. In any series, it is the value of the item which is most characteristic or common and is usually repeated the maximum number of times.
Ex:  25,29,24,25,27,25,28,25,29

Mode= 25

Computation of mode for grouped data

Mode = 3Median- 2 Mean

Another way:  

Mode= L +* i

L = Lower limit of the model class
i= class interval
f1 = frequency of the class   (lower limit > model class)
f-1 = frequency of the class (lower limit < model class)

13. What is an Ogive? How it is constructed?

Cumulative percentage frequency curve or Ogive is the graphical representation of a cumulative percentage frequency distribution. It is essentially a line graph drawn on a piece of graph paper by plotting actual upper limit of the class intervals on the x-axis and their representative cumulative percentage frequencies on the y-axis. Ogive differs from the cumulative frequency graph in the sence that here we plot cumulative percentage frequencies on the y-axis in the place of cumulative frequency.

14. Write short note on different scales of measurement.
                                      Several types of scales are associated for measurement. The distinction among the scales is important because they underscore the limitations of certain data collected on the same scales but not on others. Four types of scales are used for measurement which are:
Ø Nominal scale
Ø Ordinal scale
Ø Interval scale
Ø Ratio scale

Nominal scale:   Nominal scale consists of a set of categories that have different names. Measurement on a nominal scale label and categorize observations.
·       If two individuals are measured on a nominal scale,it is possible to determine measurements are different, one cannot determine how big is the difference. So one cannot say that one measurement is more/less than the other.
Ordinal scale :   The ordinal scale consists of a set of categories that are organized in an ordered sequence. Measurement on an ordinal scale rank observation in terms of size/magnitude.
·       Often ordinal scale consists of a series of ranks(first,second,….so on).often categories are identified by verbal labels like small, medium and large.
Interval scale : An interval scale consists of a set of categories that are all intervals of exactly the same size. With an interval scale,equal differences between numbers on the scale reflect equal differences in magnitude. However, ratios of magnitude are not meaningful. Another characterist of an interval scale is that it has an arbitrary zero point. Specially ,zero doesn’t indicate the total absence of the variable being measured.
·       Like in temperature, 0 degrees temperature does not mean that there is no temperature.

Ratio scale :    The ratio scale is an interval scale with additional features of an absolute zero point. With ratio scale, ratios of numbers do reflect ratios of magnitude. In ratio scale, value of zero, indicates noneof variable being measured.

·       One can say that one measurement is three times larger than other/one can say that one score is only half as large as another.

15. what are z scores and t scores? How can you transform raw scores into z scores and t scores?
                                    From educational and psychological tests, quite often we obtain numerical scores for assessing the ability and capacity of students. These scores are termed as raw scores.the most general and frequently used derived or transformed scores in education and psychology are the following :
1.    Standard scores or Z scores
2.    T scores
3.    C scores and stanine scores
Standard scores:    In a distribution, deviations of the scores from its mean expressed in σ(standard deviation of the distribution) units are called standard scores. These are also referred to as  σ scores or z scores. A standard score or z score of any raw score tells us where and how far above or below the mean that particular score lies in the distribution. Since most of the distributions of the scores obtained from educational and psychological tests are normal or near normal, it is quite customary to assume normality for any set of raw scores that we need to transform into standard or z scores.
Converting raw scores into standard or z scores :
      For converting raw scores belonging to a distribution into a z score, the steps to be taken are as follows:
1.    First, compute the mean (M) and standard deviation () of the distribution.
2.    Then substitute the value of M and  in the following formula for computing z (the standard score)
z = X = Raw scores
                                                                                  M = Mean of distribution
σ  = SD of distribution
Merits: Standard scores have essentially the same meaning for all tests.
Transformation of raw scores into z scores does not change the shape or                characteristics of the distribution.
Standard scores can be safely used for inter-individual and intra- individual    comparisons.

Demerits: In these scores, plus and minus signs are used. These can be overlooked or     misunderstood.
Decimal points used may create difficulty.
T scores :   This scale was derived and first used by William A. McCall and named as T scale in honour of Thorndike and Terman. In the measurement of z score, the starting point is the mean of the distribution, i.e, zero, and the unit of measurement is 1σ. Travelling from zero on this scale to both sides may involve minus and plus signs, and the use of unit of measurement, 1σ, may carry decimal points. To overcome such limitations of σ scores, a more useful scale named T scale may be used. In this scale, McCall made use of another type of score, slightly different from the standard or z scores. These T scores may be defined as normalized standard scores converted into a distribution with a mean of 50 and σ of 10.
Converting raw score into T score :
                      Compute mean and standard deviation of that distribution.
                       Compute the value of σ or z and once we know the value of z, we can compute its equivalent T score with the help of the formula
                          T = 10z + 50

Part C

18 a. Explain the needs and importance of hypothesis in research, explain different ways of stating hypothesis with the help of illusions.

     b. Identify the use of research questions.
            Hypothesis is a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. The formulation of hypothesis is a prerequisite of any successful research for it enables the researcher to get rid of vague, informed ideas or opinions and meaningless interpretations.Therefore, hypothesis plays a pivotal role in scientific research.


    Goode and Hatt are of the opinion that a hypothesis is a “ proposition which can be put to test to determine its validity”.

“A hypothesis  is a conjectural  statement of the relation between two or more variables”.
(Kerlinger 1956)

    A hypothesis is a statement or explanation that is suggested by knowledge or observation but has not , yet been proved  or disproved. [Macleod Clark J and Hockey L 1981 ]

Need and importance

1.    A hypothesis is very powerful tool of educational enquiry. It tells  what specific aspects
 of a research problem to investigate.

      2.  A hypothesis tells what data to be collect and not to collect,there by providing focus to the study.

      3. The construction of a hypothesis enhances  objectivity in a study .

      4. It unable to add the formulation of a theory specifically to conclude what is true or what is false.

     5. It provides a clear and  adequate explanation of the facts connected with the hypothesis.

     6. It  suggests experiments and encourages observation.

     7. It limits the scope of the enquiry to a manageable area, so that it facilities  economies in time, money and effort.

    8. The verification of knowledge of laws and appropriate explanations are easily attained  when hypothesis are formed in the beginning.

    9. The conclusions and inferences drawn by a hypothesis play a significant role in the advancement of knowledge.

  10. The significance of an object or event can be determined by a hypothesis.

 Ways of stating hypothesis

 There are two ways of stating research hypothesis.

1.    Directional  2. Non - Directional

 Directional hypothesis

It  predict the specific relationship among two or  more valuables or groups.

Examples :-

1. IQ scores will Correlate in a positive manner with self esteem scores .

2. Cats will work less frequently than dogs.

3. At the end of 1st standard children who attended at least 2 years of Montessori preschool will have higher reading comprehension abilities compared to children who did not attend preschool at all.

Non Directional hypothesis

 It predict that there will be differences among two or more groups , but do not specify the direction of the difference.


1. Men and women will differ in there recall of phone numbers .

2. Cats will bark less frequently than dogs.

3.  At  the end of 1st standard there will be difference between the reading comprehension abilities of children who attended  at least two years of Montessori preschool and school children who did not attended preschool at all .

Research questions

A Research question is  a clear, focused, concise,  complex and arguable question around which we centre our research. Research questions can concern ,for  example- prediction, understanding, exploring causation, testing,What, what if, who, when,why, how, explanation, description, relations [between variables, people, events], comparisons,correlations, processes factors, evaluations, function or purpose, how to achieve certain outcomes, properties and characteristics, how to do something, alternatives to something, how to improve or developing something.

Use of research questions

  • It is the heart of one's thesis  to which one  always returns when one loses track during further research writing process.

  • It is the foundation of research process.

  • Everything begins with a question.

  •  It help the investigators focus their research by providing a path  through the research  and investigation process .
  • The specificity of a well- developed research question helps writers avoid the “all - about” paper and work towards supporting a specific, arguable thesis.

  • Research question focuses attention on to the relationship of particular thesis and concepts ‘How does gender related to career choices of members of different religions?’

 Characteristics of a good research question

1.     Relevant
The question will be of academic and intellectual interests to people in the field chosen.

      2. Manageable
            It need to be realistic about the scope and scale of the study. the question must be with in the ability of time and resources .

      3. Substantial and original
         The questions should not be copied from anywhere else.  It should show the imagination and ability to construct and develop research issues.

     4. Consistent with the requirements of the assessment.
        The question must allow to satisfy the process outcomes.

     5. Clear and simple
       The complexity of a question can frequently hide unclear thoughts and lead to a confused research process.

    6. Interesting
       The question needs to intrigue  and maintain interest throughout the project.

 There are two traps to avoid.

Some questions are convenient

     The best can come up with when you asked to state a question on a form, maybe or perhaps the question fits in with  units  so we decide it will suffice.

some questions are facts

They arise out of a particular set of personal circumstances, for example a job application. Once The circumstances change one can lose enthusiasm for the topic and it becomes very  tedious.
Hypothesis is a necessary element in any scientific thought process. new theory does not imply Revolutionary step all together  there are elements of continuity and innovation.
 Albert Einstein observed ‘Creating a new theory is not like destroying an old barn and erecting a skyscraper in its place; it is rather like climbing a mountain, gaining  new and wider new and wider views,discovering new connections between our starting points and its rich environment .But the points from which we started still exists and can be seen although it appears smaller and forms a tiny part of our broad view gained by the mastery of the obstacles on our adventurous way up’.


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