Med-03 Trends And Issues in Education


 MEd-03 Trends And Issues in Education

Part -B



6. Gender issues in education

Gender inequality is the idea and situation that man, and women are not equal. Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals wholly or partly due to their gender. Gender inequality stems from distinctions whether emphatically grounded of socially constructed.

Educational equality also referred to as equality in education, is a measure of achievement, fairness and opportunity in education there for an academic system that practices educational equity. Education equity is a strong foundation of society that it is fair and thriving. The pervasive denial of the human rights to education experienced by women and girls across the globe as shown for example by the fact that 2/3 rd of the worlds non-literate are women is a striking example of gender discrimination. There is a shocking disconnect between girl’s access primary schooling and ability to enjoy a full cycle of education. Our availability table tracks the status and recent progress in girl’s environment, attendance, learning and transition from primary through to tertiary level. Child labor is a central obstacle to the fulfillment of right to education. Adaptability of education must also take in to account multiple discrimination of the interaction gender discrimination with other forms of discrimination 

7.  Life Skill Education 

Life skill-based education is form of education. That focus on cultivating personal life skill. Such as self-reflection, critical thinking, problem solving and inter personal skill. Life skill-based education aims to help children reach their full personal potentials and to prepare for the challenges of everyday life

Life skill-based education has a long history of supporting child development and health promotion. In many parts in 1986 Ottawa charter for the health promotion recognized life skills in terms of making better health choice. In 1989 convention on the right of the child linked life skill to education by stating that education should be directed towards the development the child fullest protentional.

Life skill-based education is now recognized as a methodology to address a variety of issues of child and youth development. Expected learning included a combination of knowledge, value, attitude and skills with a particular emphasis on those skills that related to critical thinking  and problem solving , self-management ,communication  and inter personal skills. Building life skill is essentially an exercise in helping children develop sound judgment and good habits for long term stability, wellness and success.

8;What are the major recommendations of JVC Report 2012

The commission recommends the Government should increases its investment for establishing teacher education intitutions and increase the institutional capacity of teacher perparation,especially in deficiet states.Government may explore the possibility of instituting a transparent procedure of pre-entry testing of candidates to the pre-service teacher education programmes,keeping in view the variation in local conditions.Teacher education should be a part of the higher education system.The duration of programme of teacher education needs to be enhanced,in keeping with the recommendations of the Education Commission (1966),the implementation of which is long overdue.It is desirable that new teacher education institutions are located in multi and interdisciplinary academic environment.This will have significant implications for the redesigning of norm and standards of various teacher education courses specified by the NCTE.This will hav also implications for employment and career progressior of prospective teachers.Existing teacher education institutions may be encouraged to be take necessary steps towards attaining academic parity with the new institutions. Current teacher education programme may be redesigned keeping in view the recommendations in the national curriculum frame work for teacher Education(NCTE 2009)and other relevant material.In keeping with the recommendations of the education commission (1966),every pre-service teacher education institution may have dedicated school attached to its as a laboratory where student teachers get opportunities to experiment with new ideas and hope their capacities and skills to become reflective practitioners.There is a need to establish a national level academic body for continual reflections and analysis of teacher education programme,their norms and standards,development of reading material and faculty development of teacher educators.As a matter of policy,the first professional degree/diploma in teacher education should be offered only in face-to-face mode.Distance learning programmes and the use of blended learning material may be developed and used for continuing professional development of school teachers and teacher educators.The institutional capacity should be increased for an integral part of the higher education system.They make teaching and course management easier by providing a framework and set of tools for instructions.The administrative aspects of CMS may include class rosters and the ability to record students grades.With respect to the teaching aspects,however,it could include learning objects,class.The CMS may also include tools for reao-time chat,or asynchronous bulletin board type communications.The CMS tool also focuses on all aspects of teaching, learning and teacher-student interaction.Some of the major players in the CMS field include WebCT and blackboard.Some u.s institutions have developed open source projects such as course works,CHEF and stellar.Some colleges also develop their own small-scale course management systems.

9 Explain LMS and CMS

Learning Management Systems (LMS)

   A learing management system is a software application or web-based technology.Used to plan,implement and assess a specific learning process.Typically,a learning management system provides an instructor with a way to create and deliver content,monitor student participation,and assess student performance.A learning management system may also provide students with the ability to use interactive features such as threaded discussions and discussion forums.The advanced Distance learning group,sponsored by the united states department of defence,has created a set of specification called shareable content object reference model to encourage the standardisation of learning management systems.

Course Management Systems(CMS)

    A Course management system is a set of tools that enables the instructor to create online course content and post it on the web without having to handle HTML or other programming languages.Course management system have becomepreparation of teacher educations.There is need to make masters in education programme of two year duration with the provision to branch out for specilisation in curriculum and pedagogic studies,foundation studies,management,policy and finance,and other areas of emerging concerns in education.The NCTE would need to develop broad-based norms for qualification of teacher educators to enable inducation of persons with post-graduation degrees in education science,social science,languages and mathematics,along with a professional degree in teacher education or a research degree in education as teacher educator.The idea of creating opportunities for teaching practioners to teach in teacher education institution,as visiting faculty,may be explored.Similarly,teacher educators should be considered as visiting faculty in schools.Faculty development programmes for teacher educators should be considered,as visiting faculty in schools.Faculty development programmes for teacherr educator should be institutionalised.There is need for enhanced investment in promotion of research in education in general,and in teacher education in particular in the universities;creation of an inter university centre in teacher education could play a significant role,in this regard.

10;An educational software:-Geogebra

Educational software is a computer software which is made for educational purpose.The purpose of this software is to make some part of education more effective and efficient. GeoGebra is an interactive geometry,algebra,statistics and calculus application,intended for learning and teaching mathematics and science from primary school  to university level. GeoGebra is available on multiple platforms with its desktop applications for windows, macos and linux,with its tablet apps for android,ipad and Windows,and with its web application based on HTML5 technology.

                                                      GeoGebra is an interactive mathematics software program for learing and teaching mathematics and science from primary school up to university level.Teachers and students can use GeoGebra has the ability to use variables for numbers,vectors and poits,find derivatives and integrals of functions and full complement of commands like root or Extremum. Constructions can be made with point,vector,segment,lines,polygons,conic sections,inequalities,implicit polynomials and functions. 

11: Critical pedagogy

critical pedagogy can be traced back to paulo freire's best-known 1968 work, The pedagogy of the oppressed.Critical pedagogy is a philosophy of education and social movement that has developed and applied concept from critical theory and related traditions to field of education and the study of culture.The goal of critical pedagogy is emancipation from oppression through an awakening of the critical consciousness.When achieved,critical consciousness encourage individuals to effect change in their world through social critique and political action.

                                                      Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach insipired by critical theory and other radical pholosophies,which attempts to help students question and challenge.It allows students to speak with greater athority because they are drawing on knowledge they already posses. It tries to help students become critically conscious.It allow students to gain the necessary to actively praticipate in a transformed and inclusive democratic community.Critical pedagogy secks to give those who have been excluded from power the right and ability to have an input into civic life  

                                                      Critical pedagogy encourage students to change their view from accepting the social norms into being independently critical the instructor often introduce challenges.It explores the dialogic relationships between teaching and learing.As teaching is considered an inherently a political act to the critical pedagogue,a more critical element of teacher education becomes addressing implicit biases that can subconsciously affect a teacher's perception of a student's ability to learn.

12. Inclusive education 

Inclusive education happens when children with and without disabilities participate and learn together in the same classes. Research shows that things definitely change when a child with disabilities attends classes alongside peers who do not have disabilities for a long time children with disabilities were educated in separate classes or in separate schools. People got used to the idea that special education meant separate education. When children are educated together positive academic and social out comes occurs for all the children involved. Placing children with and without disabilities together doesn’t produce positive out comes. Placing children with and without disabilities together doesn’t produce positive out come. Inclusive education occurs when there is on going advocacy, support, planning , support and commitment. There are principles that guide quality inclusive education • All children belongs on class • All children learn in different ways. • It is every child’s right to be included. Inclusive education is based on the simple idea that every child and family is valued equally and deserves the same opportunities and inclusive education is about children with disabilities whether the disability is mild or severe hidden or obvious – participating in every day activities, just like they would if their Disabilities were not present. Inclusive is about providing the help children need to learn and participate in meaningful ways some times help from friends or teachers work best other times, specially designed materials or technology can help the key is to give only as much help as needed. Inclusive education is a child’s right not a privilege. The individuals with disabilities education act clearly states that all children with disabilities should be educated with non disabled children their own age and have access to the general education curriculum. The benefits of inclusive education are • Develop individual strengths and gift, with high and appropriate expectations for each child. • Work on individual goals while participating in the life of the class room with other students their own age. • Involve their parents in their education and in the activities of the their local school. • Foster a school culture of respect and belonging inclusive education provide opportunities to learn about and accept individual differences, lessening the impact of harassment and bullying. • Develop friendship with a wide variety of other children each with their own individual needs and abilities • Positively affect both their school and community to appropriate diversity and inclusion on a broader level.


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