MEd-02 Psychology Of Learning And Developement


MED 02 –PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT
PART A

1 .Write a note on DSM?
A .The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental Disorders , or DSM for short ,is a text that provides the requirements to diagnose a mental disorders ,along with statistics and suggested course of treatment for different psychological disorders.
2 .Define learning , what are the levels?
A .According to Shuell , learning is a enduring change in behaviour ,or the capacity to behave in a given fashion ,which results from practice or other forms of experience.
Levels of learning

·       Cognitive understanding

·       Basic competence

·       Mastering the basics

·       Beyond the basics

·       The mind set of continuous improvement.

3 .Explain simultaneous conditioning?
A .simultaneous conditioning is conditioning that occur , frequently unintentionally or unplanned ,at the same time as formal conditioning or training .for example ,in Ivan Pavlov’s classic experiments ,his dogs were trained to salivate in response to a bell signal (conditioned stimulus)that they associated with being fed(conditioned response).

4. What are the various approaches to study human behaviour?
A.

·       Behaviourist approach

·       Cognitive approach

·       Psychodynamic approach

·       Socio-cultural approach

·       Humanistic approach and

·       Neurobiological perspectives


5 .Explain achievent motivation?
A .Achievement motivation is the desire to accomplish difficult tasks and meet standards of excellence .it is one’s aspiration to do better ,to achievement goals.
According to Mc David

Part B
6 .what is the mental health ? what are the characteristics of a mentally healthy person ?Explain the role of education in enhancing the mental health of children.
A. Mental health is the ability to make wholesome personal and social adjustment.
According to Hadfield ,”Mental health is the full and harmonious functioning of the whole personality.
Characteristics of mentally healthy person.
A mentally healthy individual possesses the following characteristics.
1 .A mentally healthy person possesses socially adaptable behaviour.
2 .He is emotionally satisfied and possesses a resilient mind.
3 .He desires are in harmony with socially approved norms .
4 .he possesses good habits and constructive attitudes.
5 .He is capable of making decisions ,assuming responsibilities in accordance with his capacities.
6 .He is self confident, adequate ,and free from internal conflicts ,tensions or inconsistences in his behaviour.
7 .He is able to adapt successfully to the changing needs and demands of the environment.
Role of education in enhancing the mental health of children.
Mental health of the learner is very important for efficient learning and proper development of personality .mental health and education are closely related with each other.for any type of education ,sound mental health is the first condition. The education can adopt the following measures in tge preservations and promotions of the mental health of the children;

A sound body is said to possess a sound mind.so there should be some provision for regular physical training and medical care of the students in school.

Students should be helped in acquiring balanced emotional development and to exercise control over their emotions.

Find out rejected and maladjusted children and help in their adjustment with classmates and others by arranging group activities .

Provide adequate sex education for the sexual adjustment of the student.

Help the children to set a proper level of aspiration .

Encourage self-discipline on the democratic lines .should not accept corporal punishment in maintaining discipline.

7 .What is life skill education ?explain its need and significance.
A .
Life skills are abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. described in this way ,skills that can be said to be life skills are innumerable ,and the nature and definition of life skills are likely to differ across cultures and settings .
The ten like skills as laid down by WHO are:
1 .self-awareness
2 .empathy
3 .critical thinking
4 .creative thinking
5 .decision making
6 .problem solving
7 .effective communication
8 .interpersonal relationship
9 .coping with stress
10 .coping with emotion.
Need and Significance of life skill education
Adolescence is a period when the intellectual, physical, social, emotional and all the capabilities are very high, but, unfortunately, most of the adolescents are unable to utilize their potential to maximum due to various reasons. They face many emerging issues such as global warming, famines, poverty, suicide, population explosion as well as other issues like alcoholism, drug abuse, sexual abuse, smoking, juvenile delinquency, anti-social acts, etc. that have an adverse effect on them and others too, to a large extent. The cut-throat competition, unemployment, lack of job security, etc. are some of the major concerns for the educated and as a result, they are caught in the mad race. This new challenge requires immediate and effective responses from a socially responsible system of education. "Education" is important, but education to support and live life better is more important. It has been felt that life skills education bridges the gap between basic functioning and capabilities. It strengthens the ability of an individual to meet the needs and demands of the present society and helps in dealing with the above issues in a manner to get desired behaviour practical. Imparting life skill training through inculcating life skill education will help youth to overcome such difficulties in life.
8.Explain the structure of the brain and its key function?
The Structure And Function Of The Human Brain
The brain structure is composed of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain, each with multiple parts.
Forebrain
The Cerebrum: Also known as the cerebral cortex, the cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain, and it is associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. Nerve cells make up the gray surface, which is a little thicker than our thumb. White nerve fibers beneath the surface carry signals between nerve cells in other parts of the brain and body. Its wrinkled surface increases the surface area, and is a six-layered structure found in mammals, called the neocortex. It is divided into four sections, called “lobes”. They are; the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe and the temporal lobe.
Functions Of The Lobes:
Frontal Lobe – The frontal lobe lies just beneath our forehead and is associated with our brain’s ability to reason, organize, plan, speak, move, make facial expressions, serial task, problem solve, control inhibition, spontaneity, initiate and self-regulate behaviors, pay attention, remember and control emotions.
Parietal Lobe – The parietal lobe is located at the upper rear of our brain, and controls our complex behaviors, including senses such as vision, touch, body awareness and spatial orientation. It plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various parts of our body, knowledge of numbers and their relations, and in the manipulation of objects. Portions are involved with our visuospatial processing, language comprehension, the ability to construct, body positioning and movement, neglect/inattention, left-right differentiation and self-awareness/insight.
Occipital Lobe – The occipital lobe is located at the back of our brain, and is associated with our visual processing, such as visual recognition, visual attention, spatial analysis (moving in a 3-D world) and visual perception of body language; such as postures, expressions and gestures.
Temporal Lobe – The temporal lobe is located near our ears, and is associated with processing our perception and recognition of auditory stimuli (including our ability to focus on one sound among many, like listening to one voice among many at a party), comprehending spoken language, verbal memory, visual memory and language production (including fluency and word-finding), general knowledge and autobiographical memories.
A deep furrow divides the cerebrum into two halves, known as the left and right hemispheres. And, while the two hemispheres look almost symmetrical, each side seems to function differently. The right hemisphere is considered our creative side, and the left hemisphere is considered our logical side. A bundle of axons, called the corpus callosum, connects the two hemispheres.
Midbrain
The midbrain is located below the cerebral cortex, and above the hindbrain placing it near the center of the brain. It is comprised of the tectum, tegmentum, cerebral aqueduct, cerebral peduncles and several nuclei and fasciculi. The primary role of the midbrain is to act as a sort of relay station for our visual and auditory systems. Portions of the midbrain called the red nucleus and the substantia nigra are involved in the control of body movement, and contain a large number of dopamine-producing neurons. The degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra is associated with Parkinson’s disease. The midbrain is the smallest region of the brain, and is located most centrally within the cranial cavity.
Limbic System – the limbic system is often referred to as our “emotional brain”, or ‘childish brain’. It is found buried within the cerebrum and contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus.
Thalamus – the primary role of the thalamus is to relay sensory information from other parts of the brain to the cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus – the primary role of the hypothalamus is to regulate various functions of the pituitary gland and endocrine activity, as well as somatic functions e.g.body temperature, sleep, appetite.
Amygdala – the primary role of the amygdala is to be a critical processor for the senses. Connected to the hippocampus, it plays a role in emotionally laden memories and contains a huge number of opiate receptor sites that are implicated in rage, fear and sexual feelings.
Hippocampus – the primary role of the hippocampus is memory forming, organizing and storing information. It is particularly important in forming new memories, and connecting emotions and senses, such as smell and sound, to memories.
Pituitary Gland – the primary role of the pituitary gland is an important link between the nervous system and the endocrine system. It releases many hormones which affect growth, metabolism, sexual development and the reproduction system. It is connected to the hypothalamus and is about the size of a pea. It is located in the center of the skull, just behind the bridge of the nose.
Hindbrain
The Cerebellum – The cerebellum, or “little brain”, is similar to the cerebrum with its two hemispheres and highly folded surface. It is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, balance and cardiac, respiratory and vasomotor centers.
Brain Stem – The brain stem is located beneath the limbic system. It is responsible for vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. The brain stem is made of the midbrain, pons, and medulla.
Pons – The primary role of the pons is to serve as a bridge between various parts of the nervous system, including the cerebellum and cerebrum. Many important nerves that originate in the pons, such as the trigeminal nerve, responsible for feeling in the face, as well as controlling the muscles that are responsible for biting, chewing, and swallowing. It also contains the abducens nerve, which allows us to look from side to side and the vestibularcochlear nerve, which allows to hear. As part of the brainstem, a section of the lower pons stimulates and controls the intensity of breathing, while a section of the upper pons decreases the depth and frequency of breaths. The pons is also associated with the control of sleep cycles, and controls respiration and reflexes. It is located above the medulla, below the midbrain, and just in front of the cerebellum.
Medulla – The primary role of the medulla is regulating our involuntary life sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing and heart rate. As part of the brain stem, it also helps transfer neural messages to and from the brain and spinal cord. It is located at the junction of the spinal cord and brain.
9.Discuss the constructivist strategies used in instruction and learning? 

Constructionism Edit
An approach to learning based on the constructivist learning ideologies presented by Jean Piaget (Harel & Papert, 1991). In this approach, the individual is consciously engaged in the construction of a product (Li, Cheng, & Liu, 2013). The utilization of constructionism in educational settings has been shown to promote higher-order thinking skills such as problem-solving and critical thinking (Li et al., 2013).

Guided instruction Edit
A learning approach in which the educator uses strategically placed prompts, cues, questions, direct explanations, and modeling to guide student thinking and facilitate an increased responsibility for the completion of a task (Fisher & Frey, 2010).

Problem-based learning Edit
A structured educational approach which consists of large and small group discussions (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007). Problem-based learning begins with an educator presenting a series of carefully constructed problems or issues to small groups of students (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007). The problems or issues typically pertain to phenomena or events to which students possess limited prior knowledge (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007). The first component of problem-based learning is to discuss prior knowledge and ask questions related to the specific problems or issues (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007). Following the class discussion, there is typically time in which students individually research or reflect on the newly acquired information and/or seek out areas requiring further exploration (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007). After a pre-determined amount of time (as outlined by the educator), students will meet in the same small groups that were composed prior to the class discussion (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007). In the first meeting, groups will spend between one and three hours further discussing the problems or issues from class in addition to presenting any new information collected during individual research (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007). Following the first meeting, students will independently reflect on the group discussion, specifically in comparing thoughts regarding the problems or issues in question (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007). Typically, groups will meet a second time to critically analyse individual and group thoughts and discussions and will attempt to synthesize the information in order to draw conclusions about the given problem or issue (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007). Within the educational setting, problem-based learning has enabled students to actively construct individual understandings of a topic using both prior and newly acquired knowledge (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007). Moreover, students also develop self-directed and group learning skills which ultimately facilitates the comprehension of the problems or issues (Schmidt & Loyens, 2007).

Inquiry-based learning Edit
An educational approach associated with problem-based learning in which the student learns through investigating issues or scenarios (Hakverdi-Can & Sonmez, 2012). In this approach, students pose and answer questions individually and/or collaboratively in order to draw conclusions regarding the specific issues or scenarios (Hakverdi-Can & Sonmez, 2012). Within the educational setting, inquiry-based learning has been beneficial in developing student inquiry, investigation, and collaboration skills, in turn, increasing overall comprehension of the issue or scenario (Hakverdi-Can & Sonmez, 2012).

Effective essential questions include student thought and research, connect to student's reality and can be solved in different ways (Crane, 2009). There are no incorrect answers to essential questions, rather answers reveal student understanding(Crane, 2009).
Anchored instruction Edit
An educational approach associated with problem-based learning in which the educator introduces an 'anchor' or theme in which students will be able to explore (Kariuki & Duran, 2004). The 'anchor' acts as a focal point for the entire task, allowing students to identify, define, and explore problems while exploring the topic from a variety of different perspectives (Kariuki & Duran, 2004).

Cooperative learning Edit
A variety of educational approaches focusing on individuals working together to achieve a specific learning outcome (Hsiung, 2012).

Reciprocal Peer Teaching Edit
A cooperative learning approach wherein students alternate roles as teacher and learner (Krych, March, Bryan, Peake, Wojciech, & Carmichael, 2005). The utilization of Reciprocal Peer Teaching (RPT) in educational settings has been effective in the development of teamwork, leadership, and communication skills in addition to improving students' understanding of course content (Krych et al., 2005).



10.Describe sign -Gestalt theory of learning .How it differ from Gestalt learning?
The Gestalt theory developed in Germany during a time when behaviourism was the prevaling learning theory in America.This theory of learning was introduced by Gestalt psychologist ;Kohler,Koffka and Wertheimer.Hence this theory is known as Gestalt theory . The gestalt theory hypothesis that an individual s perceptions of stimuli has an effect on their response. If two  individuals are exposed to identical stimuli,their reaction to it would be different depending on their past experiences. They believes that “The whole is more important than its parts”
Basic concepts of insight learning
1.Learning occurs spontaneously and suddenly by the developement of insight .
2.Learning is a purposive ,exploratory and creative enterprise ,in which the total situation is taken in to account by the learner.
3.A learning situation is a problem situation and the learner can deduce the solution by insight if the perceives the situation as whole.
4.While learning,the learner always responds to the proper relationship rather than specific stimuli.
Steps in insight learning may involve the following steps:
1.Identifying the problem:
2.Understanding the problem
3.Incubation of ideas:
4.Trail of mode of response:
5.Sustained attention:
6.Insight developement
7.Steady repetition of adaptive behaviour:
8.Comprehension of ability:
Gestalt Law of learning
Gestalt belives  that individuals group stimuli in their own perception .This grouping in perception depends on several factors which can be considered the laws of Gestalt theory.
1.law of similarity:This law states that elements of  a stimulus configuration will be grouped  together perceptually if they are similar to each other .Stimuli of similar shape ,size , or colour tend to be grouped together.To put it differently we tend to group objects in a perceptual field on the basis of their similarity.
2.law of proximity:This law state that element nearer to each other are perceived as part of the same configuration .It refers to the tendency to perceive stimuli nearer one another as belonging together. To put it differently ,visual elements of a stimulus configuration tend to be grouped together if they are close to each other.
3.Law of closure:The law states that we tend to close the open  edges of a figure to make the stimulus configuration complete figures rather than open ones.
4.law of continuity:The law states that we link individual elements of a configuration so that they form continuous pattern that makes sense to us. That is we tend to perceive the components of perceptual field as smoothly flowing or continuous forms rather than disrupted or discontinuous forms.
11.Discuss the tenets of humanistic approach to learning .explain the humanistic strategies used in class rooms.
Humanistic approach to learning are based on the principles of humanism and are founded most notably on the work of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. They center on the learner as an individual and consider that learning is not just about the intellect,but also about educating the whole person taking a person's interest ,goals,and enthusiasm into account,so that full  potential can be achieved . This approach to learning is student centered,with learners encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning and being intrinsically ,rather than extrinsically motivated. The  primary goal of a humanistic education is human well-being,including the primacy of human values,the development of human potential ,and the acknowledgement of   human dignity.
Humanistic strategies used in classroom
Emotional support:Ahumanistic classroom is inclusive of everyone. This type of class seeks to support both individually and diversity by finding the similarities among children .Lessons are  developed not for the group,but for the individual .Diversified lessons give each child a chance to succeed and receive positive reiforcement. Each  child know how it feels to succeed, stratification of students is eliminated.
Open seminar :open seminar provide a chance for the students voice to be heard .situating desks in a circle,with the teacher joining the circle ,gives everyone an equal voice .There should be rules for the open seminar ,such as respect of opinions and giving each person a chance to speak without interruption.
Cooperative learning:cooperative learning lets children work together to find solution to problem .Each student may have a specific role within the group to make use of his talents.The teachers supervises each group of about three or four students to answer question and provide support.
Discovery education:In discovery education the teacher introduce a concept and gives the student freedom to discover her own path to learning more about the concept .This strategy supports the concept of multiple intelligence and intellectual diversity .Abstract learners may seek books and computers to research the concept.
         

12 .Write a note on Drive Reduction Theory and its implications for motivations and learning.
A.HULL LEARNING THEORY
1.     DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY
Drive Reduction Theory -(Hull)- the notion that behavior occurs in response to "drives" such as hunger, thirst, sexual interest, feeling cold, etc. When the goal of the drive is attained (food, water, mating, warmth) the drive is reduced, and this constitutes reinforcement of the behaviors that lead to the drive reduction, and ultimately learning.

Hull viewed the drive as a stimulus, arising from a tissue need, which in turn stimulates behavior. The strength of the drive is determined upon the length of the deprivation, or the intensity / strength of the resulting behavior. He believed the drive to be non-specific, which means that the drive does not direct behavior rather it functions to energize it. In addition this drive reduction is the reinforcement.
Hull's learning theory focuses mainly on the principle of reinforcement; when an S-R relationship is followed by a reduction of the need, the probability increases that in future similar situations the same stimulus will create the same prior response. Reinforcement can be defined in terms of reduction of a primary need. Just as Hull believed that there were secondary drives, he also felt that there were secondary reinforcements - “If the intensity of the stimulus is reduced as the result of a secondary or learned drive, it will act as a secondary reinforcement" (Schultz & Schultz, 1987, p 241). The way to strengthen the S-R response is to increase the number of reinforcements, habit strength.

1.      Change in the traditional S-R notion
Hull introduced concept of intervening variables between S and R. Accordingly, when a stimulus(S) impinges on the organism, it results in a sensory neural impulse(s) a kind of stimulus trace. This stimulus trace ultimately causes a motor neural reaction(r) those results in an overt response (R). Thus we may have the formula S-s-r-R instead of the traditional   S-R. However, there are so many other things within the inner mechanism of the organism like his interest, needs and drives also the reinforcing mechanism that may influence hirespondslearning, fatigue, disease, injury, motivation, etc.


2.    The concept of Drive Stimuli Reduction
Originally, Hull had a drive reduction theory of learning, but later he revised it to a Drive Stimuli Reduction theory of learning. One reason for the change was the realization that if a thirsty animal is given water as a reinforce for performing some act, it takes a considerable amount of time for the thirst drive to be satisfied by the water. The water goes into the mouth, the throat, the stomach, and eventually the blood. The effects of ingestion of water must ultimately reach the brain, and finally the thirst drive will be reduced. Hull concluded that the drive reduction was too far removed from the presentation of the reinforce to explain how learning could take place. What was needed to explain learning was something that occurred soon after the presentation of a reinforce, and that something was the reduction of drive stimuli (SD).

REASONS
1.      Drive stimuli for thirst include dryness in the mouth and parched lips. Water almost immediately reduces such stimulation thus hull had the mechanism he needed for explaining learning.
2.      It was provided by Sheffield and  Roby (1950), who found that hungry rats were reinforced by non- nutritive saccharine, which could not possibly have reduced the hunger drive.

Incentive motivation (K)
Results found by Crepsi and Zeaman led hull to reach the conclusion that organism learn as rapidly for a small incentive as they do for large one, but they perform differently as size of the incentive (K) varies. The rapid change in performance following a change in reinforcement size is referred to as the Crepsi effect, after the man who first observed it.

Stimulus-Intensity Dynamism
According to hull, Stimulus-Intensity Dynamism (V) is an intervening variable that varies along with the intensity of the external stimulus(S). Stated simply, Stimulus-Intensity Dynamism indicates that the greater the intensity of a stimulus, the greater the probability that a learned response will be elicited. Thus we must revise hull’s earlier formula as follows
sEr = (sHr x D x K x V) - (sIr + Ir) – sOr
It is interesting to note that because sHr , D,  K and V are multiplied together, if any one had a value of zero, reaction potential would be zero. For example there could have been many pairings between S and R (sHr), but if drive is zero, reinforcement is zero or the organism cannot detect the stimulus, a learned response will not occur.
Hull’s final system summarized
There are three kinds of variable in hull’s theory:
1.      Independent variable –which are stimulus events systematically manipulated by the experimenter.
2.      Intervening variables – which are process thought to be taking place within the organism but directly observable.
3.      Dependent variables – which are some aspect of behavior that is measured by  the experimenter in order to determine whether the independent variables had any effect.

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATION
The development of curriculum
In this reference hull emphasized the importance of needs in learning process and accordingly the needs of all categories of children should be incorporated in the curriculum learning becomes meaningful only when it satisfies the needs of children.
The know actual needs of the students by teacher and parents
Hull is fells that teachers and parents of the student should also share their responsibility in teaching the actual needs of the student through various means proper guidance is must for their attitude and aptitudes.
Emphasized anxiety as a drive in human learning
From this line of reasoning, it follows that encouraging some anxiety in students that could subsequently be reduced by success is a necessary condition for classroom learning. Too little anxiety results in no learning (because there is no drive to be reduced), and too much anxiety is disruptive. Therefore, students who are mildly anxious are in the best position to learn and are therefore easiest to teach.
Hull’s system of learning advocated the following chain sequence for improved results in the teaching-learning process:
a.       Drive – This is something which is needed by the learner in order to behave or respond.
b.      Cue – There must be something to which the learner must respond.
c.       Response – The learner must be made to respond in order to learn some act.
d.      Reward – The learner’s response must be reinforced or rewarded, thus enabling him to learn what he wants to learn.
13 .Bring out the contributions of Kohlberg towards moral development .

A .KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

Lawrence Kohlberg was a moral philosopher and student of child development. He was director of Harvard's Center for Moral Education. His special area of interest is the moral development of children - how they develop a sense of right, wrong, and justice.

Kohlberg observed that growing children advance through definite stages of moral development in a manner similar to their progression through Piaget's well-known stages of cognitive development. His observations and testing of children and adults, led him to theorize that human beings progress consecutively from one stage to the next in an invariant sequence, not skipping any stage or going back to any previous stage. These are stages of thought processing, implying qualitatively different modes of thinking and of problem solving at each stage.

An outline of these developmental stages follows:

A. PREMORAL OR PRECONVENTIONAL STAGES: 
AGES: Up to 10-13 years of age, most prisoners
Behavior motivated by anticipation of pleasure or pain.
STAGE 1: PUNISHMENT AND OBEDIENCE:  Might Makes Right        
Avoidance of physical punishment and deference to power. Punishment is an  automatic
response of physical retaliation. The immediate physical consequences of an action
determine its goodness or badness. The atrocities carried out by soldiers during the
holocaust who were simply "carrying out orders" under threat of punishment, illustrate that       adults as well as children may function at stage one level. "Might makes right."

STAGE 2: INSTRUMENTAL EXCHANGE:  The Egoist

Marketplace exchange of favors or blows. "You scratch my back, I'll scratch yours." Justice
is: "Do             unto others as they do unto you." Individual does what is necessary, makes
concessions only as necessary to satisfy his own desires. Right action consists of what
instrumentally satisfies one's own needs. Vengeance is considered a moral duty. People
are valued in terms of their utility. "An eye for an eye."

B. CONVENTIONAL MORALITY:

FOCUS: Significant Others, "Tyranny of the They" (They say….)
AGES: Beginning in middle school, up to middle age - most people end up here
Acceptance of the rules and standards of one's group.


STAGE 3: INTERPERSONAL (TRIBAL) CONFORMITY:  Good Boy/Good Girl

Right is conformity to the stereotypical behavioral, values expectations of one's society or
peers. Individual acts to gain approval of others. Good behavior is that which pleases or
helps others within the group. Everybody is doing it." Majority understanding ("common
sense") is seen as "natural." One earns approval by being conventionally "respectable" and
"nice." Peer pressure makes being different the unforgivable sin. Self sacrifice to group
demands is expected. Values based in conformity, loyalty to group. Sin is a breach of  the
expectations of one's immediate social order (confuses sin with group, class norms).
Retribution, however, at this stage is collective. Individual  vengeance is not allowed.
Forgiveness is preferable to revenge. Punishment is mainly for deterrence. Failure to
punish is "unfair.""If he can get away with it, why can't I?" Many religious people end up
here.



What must I do to be seen as a good boy/girl (socially acceptable)?

STAGE 4: LAW AND ORDER (SOCIETAL CONFORMITY): The Good Citizen 

Respect for fixed rules, laws and properly constituted authority. Defense of the given social
and institutional order for its own sake. Responsibility toward the welfare of others in the
society. "Justice" normally refers to criminal justice. Justice demands that the wrongdoer
be punished, that he "pay his debt to society," and that law abiders be rewarded. "A good
day's pay for a good day's work." Injustice is failing to reward work or punish demerit. Right
behavior consists of maintaining the social order for its own sake. Self-sacrifice to larger
social order is expected. Authority figures are seldom questioned. "He must be right. He's
the Pope (or the President, or the Judge, or God)." Consistency and precedent must be
maintained. For most adults, this is the highest stage they will attain.

QUESTION: What if everyone did that?

STAGE 4 ½: The Cynic

Between the conventional stages and the post-conventional Levels 5 and 6, there is a
transitional stage. Some college-age students who come to see conventional morality as
socially constructed, thus, relative and arbitrary, but have not yet discoverer universal ethical principles, may drop into a hedonistic ethic of "do your own thing." This was well
noted in the hippie culture of the l960's. Disrespect for conventional morality was especially
infuriating to the Stage 4 mentality, and indeed was calculated to be so. Kohlberg found
that some people get "stuck" in this in-between stage marked by egoism and skepticism,
never able to completely leave behind conventional reasoning even after recognizing its
inadequacies. Such people are often marked by uncritical cynicism ("All politicians are
crooks…nothing really matters anyway"), disillusionment and alienation.
C. POSTCONVENTIONAL OR PRINCIPLED MORALITY:
AGES: Few reach this stage, most not prior to middle age.
STAGE 5: PRIOR RIGHTS AND SOCIAL CONTRACT: The Philosopher/King.
Moral action in a specific situation is not defined by reference to a checklist of rules, but
from logical application of universal, abstract, moral principles. Individuals have natural or
inalienable rights and liberties that are prior to society and must be protected by society.
Retributive justice is repudiated as counterproductive, violative of notions of human rights. 
Justice distributed proportionate to circumstances and need. "Situation ethics." The
statement, "Justice demands punishment," which is a self-evident truism to the Stage 4
mind, is just as self-evidently nonsense at Stage 5. Retributive punishment is neither
rational nor just, because it does not promote the rights and welfare of the individual and
inflicts further violence upon society. Only legal sanctions that fulfill that purpose are
imposed-- protection of future victims, deterrence, and rehabilitation. Individual acts out of
mutual obligation and a sense of public good. Right action tends to be defined in terms of
general individual rights, and in terms of standards that have been critically examined and
agreed upon by the whole society--e.g. the Constitution. The freedom of the individual
should be limited by society only when it infringes upon someone else's freedom.
Conventional authorities are increasingly rejected in favor of critical reasoning. Laws are
challenged by questions of justice.



STAGE 6: UNIVERSAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLES:  The Prophet/Messiah

An individual who reaches this stage acts out of universal principles based upon the
equality and worth of all living beings. Persons are never means to an end, but are ends in
themselves. Having rights means more than individual liberties. It means that every
individual is due consideration of his dignity interests in every situation, those interests
being of equal importance with one's own. This is the "Golden Rule" model. A list of rules
inscribed in stone is no longer necessary. At this level, God  is understood to say what is
right because it is right; His sayings are not right, just because it is God who said them.
Abstract principles are the basis for moral decision making, not concrete rules. Stage
6 individuals are rare, often value their principles more than their own life, often seen as
incarnating the highest human potential. Thus they are often martyred by those of lower
stages shamed by seeing realized human potential compared with their own partially
realized levels of development. (Stoning the prophets, killing the messenger). Examples:
Mohandas Gandhi, Jesus of Nazareth, Gautamo Buddha, Martin Luther King,
14.Compare and contrast the view of piaget and bruner on intellectual development .
cognitive development refers to a person’s thought processes and the developemnt of mental traits.. It looks at how a person thinks, perceives, gains understanding and together with information processing, reasoning, imagination and memory it is how a person interacts with the world from childhood through to adulthood.
This development has been measured and studied in a variety of ways over many years. The widely used Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests were introduced early in the 20th century and are based on the concept of a mental age obtained from the results of a test the subject undertakes. However, IQ tests have come under increasing criticism as they only measre a limited range of intellectial capabilities and definine intelligence too narrowly, they can also be biased with regard to culture, race and gender. In contrast researchers such as Watson and Skinner developed their learned theory which focused on the role of environmental factors in shaping the intelligence of the child and they argues that a child is malleable with the ability to learn by having behaviour’s rewarded while others discouraged.
Piaget and Bruner were two influential theorists of cognitive development and both agreed that cognitive development took place in stages. However, their theories are fundamentally different.
Piaget’s theory was first published in 1952 and he was the first to propose that there were set steps and sequences to a child intellectual development and that intellectual development results from an active, dynamic interplay between a child and her environment. His views on mind and development have been enormously influential. His theory grew from years of observational studies of children in their natural environment as opposed to laboratory experiments of others in the same field, although some experimental data was also used. Piaget believed that all children progress through four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational and a child’s knowledge is composed of schemas; categories of knowledge from past experience that help us to interpret and understand new experiences. In Piaget’s view, new information is used to modify, add to, or change previously existing schemas. For example, a child may have a schema about race. If the child’s sole experience has been with white people, a child might believe that all people are white. Suppose then that the child encounters a black person. The child will take in this new information, modifying the previously existing schema to include this new information. This adaption by the child results in a change that helps in two fundamental actions Piaget terms assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the process of taking in new information into our previously existing schema. However, the process is somewhat subjective as we tend to modify experience or information somewhat to fit in with our preexisting beliefs. Accommodation is the changing or altering of existing schemas with the new information and new schemas developed. Using Piaget’s theory, cognitive development involves an ongoing attempt to achieve a balance between assimilation and accommodation that he termed equilibration.
In Piaget’s view, then, cognitive development occurs in a series of four distinct stages characterized by increasingly sophisticated and abstract levels of thought. These stages always occur in the same order, and each builds on what was learned in the previous stage. Piaget believes each stage in development occurs as a result of interaction between maturation and environment. He also believes intelligence or intelligent behavior is the ability to adapt. Piaget’s theory differs from other theories in several ways: it is concerned with children rather than all learners, it focuses on development rather than learning per se so does not address learning of information or specific behaviours, it proposes discrete stages of development, marked by qualitative differences rather than a gradual increase in number and complexity of behaviours, concepts, ideas, etc.
The first sensorimotor stage occurs during the first two years of life. Knowledge of the world is limited and information is primarily obtained through sensory inputs and movement. Infants gradually learn to control their own bodies and some language abilities are developed. During this stage a child achieves a sense of object constancy, in other words, the knowledge that objects go on existing even when they cannot be seen.
The preoperational stage last from two to seven years. Children in the preoperational phase try to make sense of the world but have a much less sophisticated mode of thought than adults. Memory and imagination are developing but by adult standards, is often illogical and self-centered.
During the concrete operational stage from ages seven to ten a child will begin to deal with abstract concepts while logical, rational and operational thinking also develops (mental actions that are reversible). Egocentric thoughts diminish. A child will begin to understand other people’s perspectives and views and will build on past experiences.
Finally, the formal operational stage (twelve to fifteen) is where the child develops more adult like thought structures and processes. It is characterized by an increased independence for thinking through problems and situations and taking decisions based on these and they will begin to reason logically, systematically and hypothetically. A formal operational child is capable of meta-cognition, in other words, thinking about thinking.
One of the problems of Piaget’s theory is that it’s been understood or taken to mean that before these ages children are not capable (no matter how bright) of understanding things in certain ways. In contrast, Bruner observes that the process of constructing knowledge of the world is not done in isolation but rather within a social context and notes that “there is no unique sequence for all learners, and the optimum in any particular case will depend upon a variety of factors, including past learning, stage of development, nature of the material, and individual differences.”
Bruner built on Vygotsky’s social constructional theory from the 1930’s which fell into three general claims; higher mental functioning in the individual emerged out of social processes (culture), secondly, social and psychological processes are fundamentally shaped by cultural tools (language) and lastly, the developmental method Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The ZPD is defined as the difference between problem-solving the child is capable of performing independently, and problem-solving capabilities with guidance or collaboration. Like Piaget, Bruner said that children have an innate capacity and that cognitive abilities develop through active interaction. Howver, unlike Piaget, Bruner argued that social factors, particularly language, were important for cognitive growth. These underpin the concept of scaffolding; the help given to a child that supports learning and is similar to scaffolding around a building, where a child is shown how to do something so the child can accomplish the task individually. The scaffolding is a temporary support structure which helps the child: understand new ideas, complete new tasks, motivates and encourages the child so they can achieve higher levels of development. In contrast to Piaget’s four stages, Bruner suggested three stages.
The first is the enactive mode (first eighteen months) when the childs activities are predominantly motor and related to motor nerves. The iconic mode then develops where the child is guided by mental imagery; able to form own mental images and expresses self on that basis. The final stage is the symbolic mode from about six or seven years onwards in which the child will express self in the form of words and will have a mental sense of time and distance. At this stage language learning also begins.
Bruner became interested in schooling in the USA during the 1050’s with a particular interest in the cognitive development of children and the appropriate forms of education. Bruner stressed the importance of the role of social exchanges between the child and adult and whilst Bruner’s theory is much narrower in scope that Piaget’s, Bruner’s ideas have been applied more directly to education. Bruner’s work was instrumental in the development of a range of educational programmes and experiments in the 1960s and he also became involved in the design and implementation of the influential MACOS project which was later critiqued by others and found to be difficult to implement as it required a degree of sophistication and learning on the part of teachers, and ability, motivation on the part of students. Bruner was also concerned with how knowledge is represented and organised through different modes of representation and suggested that different ways of thinking (or representation) were important at different ages which was in contrast to Piagets who emphasised that children developed sequentially through different stages of development.
During the 1960’s Bruner also developed his own theory on cognitive development. In contrast to Piaget, his approach looked to environmental and experiential factors and he crisised Piaget for his lack of attention to social and political context of his theory.  Bruner suggested that intellectual ability developed in stages through step-by-step changes in how the mind is used.
Piaget suggested that children learnt in a set series of stages and could not learn things deemed too difficult, however, unlike Piaget’s, Bruner did not contend that these stages were necessarily age-dependent, or invariant. Bruner argued that any subject can be taught effectively to any child at any stage of development which underpins the idea of a spiral curriculum in education weheby a subject is revisted repeatedly, building knowledge and depth each time appropriate to the level of the child. For example, it would not be appropriate to teach a three year old complex physics, however, Bruner contented that they could be taught some principles of physics (e.g., force, mass, momentum, friction) in enactive form and later repeated in iconic, then symbolic form. Bruners theories on enactive, iconic, and symbolic stages may also be applicable to adults learning unfamiliar material where in contract Piaget theories relates to children only.
Later reflections from Bruner on education in The Culture of Education (1996) show how culture impacts on cognitive development; “‘culture shapes the mind… it provides us with the toolkit by which we construct not only our worlds but our very conception of our selves and our powers” and how his thinking has changed since the 1960’s.
Aswell as Piaget and Bruner, other major theorists such as Gesell, Erikson and Spock also believe there are stages and periods of development, but each emphasizes a different approach to the study of a child’s thinking and learning patterns. Gesell’s theory is that heredity promotes development in a preordained sequence with few individual differences. He deemphasizes individual differences among children and stresses the importance of maturation following an inherited timetable; abilities and skills emerge in a preordained sequence. Although Erikson and Spock also think of cognitive development in terms of stages, in contrast, they emphasize the emotional development of children.
15 .Explain the main problems faced by adolescent people.
A.  Adolescence is defined by WHO as the age group of 10-19 years (Gupta, 2001)
Adolescence is one of the important stages in the life span of a human being. It is the phase when
very rapid changes take place both physically as well as psychologically. The literal meaning of
adolescence is to „grow up‟. This means accomplishing a number of developmental tasks. How an adolescent fares during the transition to adulthood has long-term repercussions. Earning a college degree leads to a higher-paying and more prestigious job, while early parenthood,unsuccessful marriage at a young age, and involvement in crime or problematic substance use all
foretell difficulties in finances, family relationships, and beyond (Zeng and Kaplan, 2003).
The School constitutes a large part of an adolescent‟s existence. School problems during theadolescent years may be the result of rebellion and a need for independence. Poor school performance predicts health-compromising behaviors and physical, mental and emotional problems
5. Teachers play an important role in providing information and advice to the adolescents. School is the place where adolescents get opportunity to share many personal issues with their peers.
The conditions now prevailing in the educational institutions like high population or mass
schooling without any individual orientation oblige the teenager to submit to teaching
methods and to the school system. School can reveal the subject's personal problems
(anxiety, phobia or depression), but may equally create a big challenges for the adolescent by
not recognizing the their problems and helping them cope with it (Catheline, 2005).

An adolescent has to adjust to the changes taking place in his/her body and behaviour. He/she realizes that he/she is no longer a child but has not become an adult.
adolescents experience and feel? How does he/she cope with the bodily changes? What are the
challenges they face while in school. These are some of the questions that will be discussed in
detail and will help in understanding how teachers help.
SPECIFIC CHALLENGES
Growing up into adulthood makes one experience problems in various domains of life including
personal, social and educational problems. Stereotypes and misconceptions related to
adolescence period has given rise to various problems among the adolescents. Some of the
critical issues include substance abuse, teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease and
AIDS, violence, crime among others
i).

Substance Abuse
Adolescent substance abuse often has lifelong consequences. Dependence on alchohol and hard
drugs to deal with daily stresses reduce their responsible decision making skills. They also
increase serious adjustment problems including depression and antisocial behaviour. To avoid
this problem, teachers should provide proper guidance while at the same time creating conducive

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environment to channelize the energy of adolescents into other programs. This will help them in
coping up with stress.
ii).

Sexually Transmitted Disease
Another widespread problem, recently observed throughout the world is Sexually Transmitted
Disease (STD). Teenagers are in greatest danger of getting affected by STD. They are the ones
who engage in irresponsible sexual behaviour. Adolescents should be helped by teachers in
removing their false beliefs about sex which put them at higher risk. The adolescents should be
provided with proper sex education in an effective manner both in school and at their homes.
iii).

Teenage Pregnancy
Becoming a responsible parent is a challenging and stressful experience. It is especially difficult
for adolescents. Child rearing imposes lasting hardships on both the mother and the child. It also
builds stress. After going through so many problems of adolescents let us see the reasons related
to these problems are: Lack of proper guidance from teachers and parents, inappropriate effect of
media, wrong association in peer groups, and nervousness towards physical changes, faulty
perceptions towards sex instincts and mood swings. Teachers can provide adolescent children
with good reasons to postpone early childbearing by expanding their educational, vocational and
employment opportunities. Teachers at school should provide proper guidance to adolescents
regarding teenage pregnancy and its problems.
iv).

Bullying
Adolescents who are involved in bullying (a common form of violence in schools) either as a
perpetrator or victim, are more likely to suffer from depressive symptoms such as loneliness and


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difficulty making friends, and more likely to face psychosocial adjustment issues (Suluja et al.,
2004). Involvement in bullying as a bully or victim is also associated with poorer health
outcomes, while being a bully is associated with more frequent alcohol use. Students (ages 12-
18) who reported having been a target of hate speech, defined here as being called names based
on one‟s
tribe, race, religion, disability, gender, or sexual orientation, were 1.5 times more likely
than other students to report being nonviolently victimized and 3.1 times more likely to report
being violently victimized while at school (Suluja et al., 2004).
Through guidance and counseling process, adolescents can be helped to solve the problem of
bullying. Personal and social counselling can help adolescents in solving their problems. The
family also plays a crucial role in solving these problems. Parents, elders and peers can come as
useful help for the growing adolescents.
v).

Friendships and Peer Groups
Probably the most often discussed changes during adolescence are the increases in peer focus
and involvement in peer-related social, sports, and other extracurricular activities. Many
adolescents attach great importance to these types of activities-substantially more importance
than they attach to academic activities (Wigfield, Eccles, MacIver, Reuman, and Midgley, 1991).
Indeed, often to the chagrin of parents and teachers, activities with peers, peer acceptance, and
appearance can take precedence over school activities, particularly during early adolescence.
In part because of the importance of social acceptance during adolescence, friendship networks
during this period often are organized into relatively rigid cliques that differ in social status
within the school setting (Brown, 1990). The existence of these cliques seems to reflect
adolescents‟ need to establish a sense
of identity; belonging to a group is one way to solve the


16. What are the characteristics of motivated learners

The problem of motivation is central both to educational psychology and to the classroom activity. In fact no real learning can take place without motivation. Motivation brings the learner in the proper frame of mind for learning. It concentrates the attention and energy of a person on the activity or knowledge to be learnt. The term motivation originated from a Latin word motum which means motion. Motivation is the process of arousing or initiating movement in the organism. According to Mc Donald, motivation is an energy change within the organism characterized by affective arousal and anticipatory goal relations.
The characteristics of motivated learners are,

1) It energises the learner and thus it initiates learning activity.

2) Motives activate, direct, and regulate the behaviour of the learner.

3) It controls the learning behaviour of the individual.

4) It sustains activity when a goal is not immediately available.

5) Motivation selects behaviour that is under motivated condition the learner does not move in haphazard way.

6) Motivation provides energy and accelerates the behaviour of the learner.

7) Motivation release the tension and helps in the satisfying the needs of the learner.

8) Motivation is an outcome of social learning and reinforcements which individual have experienced.

9) It is an intense desire to perform with excellence for its own sake.

10) It involves an exalted self esteem and self image.

11) It is conditioned by one’s early training, experiences and subsequent learning.

12) It is manifested only when the individual perceives performance as instrumental to a sense of personal accomplishment.

17. Explain the meaning and definition of educational psychology

Education psychology is the psychology that relates to education. It is the scientific study of human behaviour in educational situations. Educational psychology is an applied branch of psychology which deals with the application of psychological principles and techniques to the development of educational practices and to the solution of educational problems. The main function of educational psychology is to help teachers understand the theoretical and functional nature of educational process as revealed by scientific research. According to Stephen, educational psychology is the systematic study of the educational growth and development of a child.
Educational psychology employs scientific method and adopts scientific approach to study behaviour of an individual in educational environment. It is functional in its character and is not therefore concerned with the contents of the subject. It is not a normative science as it is not concerned with the values of education. It is a growing science. It is concerned with new and ever new researchers and centre around new and new problems of education. It is not a perfect science. It cannot claim objectivity, exactness and validity as claimed by natural science or physical science. It is an applied positive science as it studies facts of behaviour and describes the laws governing them. Educational psychology is an applied branch of psychology which deals with application of psychological principles and techniques to the development of educational practices and to the solution of educational problems. A systematic knowledge of educational psychology will be useful for the teacher in the following ways,
To understand the learner.
To cater the individual differences.
To understand the developmental characteristics
To understand the learning process.
To understand the problems of children.
To maintain constructive and creative discipline.
To render guidance services.
To help in measuring learning outcomes.

Part c
18.What is transfer of learning?What are its types?Explain the theories of transfer and its relevance in education.
Transfer Of learning
One of the important ​ goals Of education is to enable the learner to use knowledge or skills Learnt in a new situation. This is made possible through a process called ​ transfer of learning.​ it is the
application of knowledge or skills acquired in one situation to another.
·       According to ​ bransford transfer of learning is the abilityto apply previous learning in to new situation, problem , or to future learning
● Cormier ​ defines transfer of learning as the application of skills and knowledge learned in
one context being applied in another context.
Transfer of learning occures when a person applies previoud experience and knowledge to learning or problem solving in a new situation.
Types of transfer
Positive ​ transfer​ :positive transfer occured when the learning of one task facilitating the acquisition of a subsequent task. un other words when learning of one activity makes learning of another activity easier.it os called positive transfer.
Negative ​ transfer​ : it occures when the learning of one task impeds the acquisition of a sub sequent task.in other words when the learning of one task makes the learning of other task harder.
Zero ​ transfer​ :ot iccures when the learning of a particular task makes no difference on the learning of a subsequent task.in other words when learni g of a task neither facilitates nor inferes with the learning of a subsiquent task.
Vertical ​ transfer : it occures when learning at one behavioural level facilitates learning at a
higher behavioural level.in other words when prior learning is transfered upward in a knowledge hyrarchy it is called vertical transfer.
Horizondal ​ transfer : it occures when learning at one level of complexity facilitates learning of another task at the same level of complexity.in other words when transfer take place across
different settings or contexts at the same level. Is called horizondal transfer
General ​ transfer : it refers to the application of general principals or formulate learnt in one situation to a more complex novel situation.general teansfer involves the learning of
generalizable skills or habits.
Specific ​ transfer : it occures when prior learning aids subsequent learning because of the specific similarities between the tasks.it involves the application of knowledge to a specific very
similar situation.
Theories of transfer of learning
Faculty theory​ : according to this the human mind is composed of so many independent faculties like memory,attention,imagination,reasoning,judgement etc.these faculties can be strengthened through exercise or practices.such properly strengthened faculties later on function automatically in all situations and areas in which they are involved.
Theory of identical elements: throndike is the originator of this theory which suggest that transfer from one situation to another is possible to the extend that there are common or identical elements in the situations.
Theory of generalisations: it is proposed by JUDD and according to him transfer of learning occures when the individual apply the generalizations that deliverd from a situation or certain
experience to a new situation.
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATION
1. maximize the similarity between teaching different school subjects so as to facilitate
transfer of learning.
2. Emphasis relationship among different subjects and tell the learner to perceive them
within a subject and between the subjects.
3. Emphasis principles generalisations, or rules instead of discrete facts.
4. The teacher should give several examples while teaching conceptsand skills.
5. While teaching in the classroom,identical components between situations should be
identified and the relationship pointed out.
6. Learning by doing has a greater transfer value than learning by drill.learning by doing
develops understanding
7. Follow the rinciples of correlation that is 1) correlation among different school subjects
2)correlation of school subjects with social and physical environment 3)correlation of the
different branches of the same subject. 4) correlaton of the different topics within the
same branch.

.
19.Explain the areas of problems of adjustment .Highlight the defence mechanisms adopted to overcome such problems?
ADJUSTMENT
In psychology, adjustment refers to the behavioral process of balancing conflicting needs, or needs challenged by obstacles in the environment. Humans and animals regularly adjust to their environment. For example, when they are stimulated by their physiological state to seek food, they eat (if possible) to reduce their hunger and thus adjust to the hunger stimulus. Adjustment disorder occurs when there is an inability to make a normal adjustment to some need or stress in the environment.
 A sequence of adjustment begins when a need is felt and ends when it is satisfied. Hungry people, for example, are stimulated by their physiological state to seek food. When they eat, they reduce the stimulating condition that impelled them to activity, and they are thereby adjusted to this particular need.
In general, the adjustment process involves four parts:

(1) a need or motive in the form of a strong persistent stimulus,
 (2) the thwarting or nonfulfillment of this need,
 (3) varied activity, or exploratory behaviour accompanied by problem solving, and
 (4) some response that removes or at least reduces the initiating stimulus and completes the adjustment.
Social and cultural adjustments are similar to physiological adjustments. People strive to be comfortable in their surroundings and to have their psychological needs (such as love or affirmation) met through the social networks they inhabit. When needs arise, especially in new or changed surroundings, they impel interpersonal activity meant to satisfy those needs. In this way, people increase their familiarity and comfort with their environments, and they come to expect that their needs will be met in the future through their social networks. Ongoing difficulties in social and cultural adjustment may be accompanied by anxiety or depression.Since the moment we are born, humans are in a constant state of adjustment. Since we are changing so rapidly and so constantly, we cannot break these down into separate unrelated challenges
Successful Adjustment is also called being 'well adjusted' and is critical to mental health. Colloquially, being well-adjusted is defined as a person who "is reasonable and has good judgement...their behavior is not difficult or strange."
In general, a person that is well-adjusted will have the following characteristics:
·         An understanding of personal strengths and weaknesses and a tendency to play up strengths while limiting the appearance of weaknesses
·         Personal respect and appreciation, a well-adjusted individual finds themselves to be inherently valuable
·         Appropriate aspirations that require hard work and capitalizing on strengths without being too far out of reach and setting them up for failure
·         Basic needs such as food, water, shelter, and sleep are consistently met, as well as a general feeling of security and positive self-esteem
·         Positive attitude and a tendency to find the goodness in other people, objects and activities. A well-adjusted person will acknowledge others' weaknesses but not actively search for faults.
·         Flexibility to respond to and accommodate for changes in the environment
·         Ability to handle adverse circumstances: well-adjusted people are able to take negative life events in stride, they will be motivated to take action to remedy the problem rather than passively accept it
·         A realistic perception of the world that allows for a healthy amount of distrust of others and encourages pragmatic thinking
·         A feeling of ease within surrounding environments. A well-adjusted person feels comfortable in different aspects of their community such as home, school, work, neighborhood, religious organization, etc.
·         A balanced life philosophy that accounts for and acknowledges the impact that the world has on an individual, as well as the impact an individual can have on the world 
These more detailed characteristics listed above can be synthesized into these main criteria:
·         ability to adequately function
·         ability to perform adaptive tasks
·         high positive affect and low negative affect
·         general satisfaction in various life domains
·         absence of debilitating psychological disorders
MALADJUSTMENT
An individual that doesn't have these characteristics or is not consistently meeting the listed criteria could be diagnosed with an Adjustment disorder. Maladjustment is a term used in psychology to refer the "inability to react successfully and satisfactory to the demand of one's environment". The term maladjustment can be refer to a wide range of social, biological and psychological conditions.
Maladjustment can be both intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic maladjustment is the disparities between the needs, motivations and evaluations of an individual, with the actual reward gain through experiences. Extrinsic maladjustment on the other hand, is referred to when an individual's behavior does not meet the cultural or social expectation of society.
The causes of maladjustment can be attributed to a wide variety of factors, including: family environment, personal factors, and school-related factors. Maladjustment affects an individual's development and the ability to maintain a positive interpersonal relationship with others. Often maladjustment emerges during early stages of childhood, when a child is in the process of learning methods to solve problem that occurs in interpersonal relationship in their social network. A lack of intervention for individuals who are maladjusted can cause negative effects later on in life
 If diagnosed, they would likely be treated with psychotherapy to help them develop these skills and abilities. Ways to encourage these healthy adjustment mechanisms may include:
·         encouraging talking about and processing emotions
·         understanding and offering support, especially during periods of transition
·         reassuring them that they are normal and worthy of inclusion
·         monitoring progress in different environments (i.e.: home and school)
·         emphasizing decision making, especially starting out with simple, relatively inconsequential decisions (i.e.: what to eat for breakfast, what toy to play with)
·         promoting participation in hobbies and activities that are enjoyable and play to their individual strengths

DEFENCE MECHANISMS
Many methods used for adjustment are also defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms can be either adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and the use. In a 2003 study, researchers found that elementary school children that utilized appropriate defense mechanisms had higher performance in academic, social, conduct, and athletic domains.
Defense mechanism, in psychoanalytic theory, any of a group of mental processes that enables the mind to reach compromise solutions to conflicts that it is unable to resolve. The process is usually unconscious, and the compromise generally involves concealing from oneself internal drives or feelings that threaten to lower self-esteem or provoke anxiety. The concept derives from the psychoanalytic hypothesis that there are forces in the mind that oppose and battle against each other. The term was first used in Sigmund Freud’s paper “The Neuro-Psychoses of Defence” (1894).

According to Freud,defense mechanisms are psychological strategies that are unconsciously used to protect a person from anxiety arising from unacceptable thoughts or feelings.We use defense mechanisms to protect ourselves from feelings of anxiety or guilt, which arise because we feel threatened, or because our id or superego becomes too demanding.  They are not under our conscious control, and are non-voluntaristic. 
Ego-defense mechanisms are natural and normal.  When they get out of proportion (i.e., used with frequency), neuroses develop, such as anxiety states, phobias, obsessions, or hysteria.
In order to deal with conflict and problems in life, Freud stated that the ego employs a range of defense mechanisms.  Defense mechanisms operate at an unconscious level and help ward off unpleasant feelings (i.e., anxiety) or make good things feel better for the individual.
Psychoanalysts emphasize that the use of a defense mechanism is a normal part of personality function and not in and of itself a sign of psychological disorder. Various psychological disorders, however, can be characterized by an excessive or rigid use of these defenses.

At a glance:

·        Also known as Adjustment mechanism and Mental mechanism.
·        A defence mechanism is an unconscious psychological strategy adopted by the individual to tackle a frustrating situation.
·        It is a learned responses which develop unconsciously to meet a stress situation
·        It may be defined as any habitual method of overcoming blocks, reaching goals, satisfying motives and maintaining equilibrium.
·        A defence mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses
·        Tension reduction activity
·        Every individual uses his own mechanism to maintain the balance of his personality in the society.
·        Defense mechanism helps the individual to preserve his self-concept and protects him from anxiety.
·        Comer (1992): “According to psychoanalytic theory, these are strategies developed by ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety”.
·        Morgan at al (2005): “unconscious strategies used to avoid anxiety, resolve conflict and enhance self-esteem”.
·        Is the unconscious strategy adopted by an individual to protect form ego, to minimize conflict, and to maintain repression.
TYPES OF DEFENCE MECHANISM
1.      Aggression
·        It refers to forceful activity that can be in the form of either physical, verbal or symbolic or all three.
·        It arises from the frustration where individual attempts to hurt or destroy the source of frustration.
·        Extra punitive:- aggressive attitudes frustration to another person
·        Intra punitive: frustration to himself.

2.      Compensation
This is a mechanism in which an individual tries to balance or over-up his deficiency in one field by exhibiting his strength in another field.
Ex: a boy who fails in academic subjects may save his self-esteem by distinguishing himself in athletics, girls wore high-heeled shoes.

3.      Identification
·        It consists of adopting the feelings, attitudes and achievements of others as one’s own.
·        Here individual seeks satisfaction in associating himself in some way in the success of others.
·        Ex: children often identify themselves with their parents, film stars, cricket players or political leaders.

4.      Projection
·        Placing blame for one’s own actions or inadequacies on someone or else or circumstances-rather than accepting responsibility for their own actions.

5.      Rationalization
·        Use of a reasonable excuse or acceptable explanation for behavior.
·        It is a face saving devise by which the individual justifies his short-comings, failure and incompetence by giving false reasons.
·        kind of excuse making process.
·        Ex: a boy failed in maths make use of rationalization when he says the questions were out of syllabus.
Sour grapism:
·         Something we cannot get becomes something we did not want anyway.
·        Here individual attempt to rationalize his external conditions rather than upon his own inability.
·        Ex: failure to qualify UGC test, one might say, was a blessing as there are lot of unemployed UGC Holders.
Sweet Lemonism:
·        This refers to the attitude that what is already achieved is better than something that is usually considered more desirable of others.]

6.      Negativism
·        Refuse to co-operate and exhibit rebellious behaviour doing the opposite of what is normally expected.
·        This mechanism by which an individual draws the attention of others.

7.      Withdrawal
·        It is the retreating from situations which cause difficulties or refusing to face problems to avoid the danger of failure and hence the possible frustration.

8.      Regression
·        It is the mechanism of escape from reality by returning to behaviour appropriate at an earlier age.
·        In this the individual returns to less mature level of development to save his ego.
·        Ex: an adolescent girl who has been frustrated in fulfilling her needs may cry like a child, an old man, by taking of the good  olden days.

9.      Repression
·        An individual forgers by pushing down into the unconscious any thoughts that arouse anxiety.
·        It is an unconscious process where in painful experience, shameful thoughts etc. are removed from conscious mind by pushing down them to unconscious mind.

10. Sublimation
·        It involves a process of redirecting the socially unacceptable desires along desirable channels.
·        Frustrated sexual impulses are usually sublimated as creative effort in music, art and literature etc.

·        Ex: an unmarried women interested in children may give expression to her repressed maternal urges by becoming a nurse.

11. Day Dreaming
·         Daydreams are brief detachments from reality while awake. Episodes generally include fantasizing about hopes for the future and other pleasant thoughts.
·         Adaptive example: daydreaming about positive social interactions could reduce social anxiety
·         In a 2016 study, researchers studied 103 students as they transitioned to university. They found that those who day dreamed more frequently and whose day dreams had higher rates of positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes were less likely to feel lonely by the end of the study. Participants' day dreams fostered feelings of connection and social inclusion during an anxiety ridden period. Findings from this study suggest that day dreaming can help individuals with socio-emotional adjustment



defense mechanisms

Identification with the Aggressor

A focus on negative or feared traits. I.e., if you are afraid of someone, you can practically conquer that fear by becoming more like them.
An extreme example of this is the Stockholm Syndrome, where hostages identify with the terrorists. E.g., Patty Hearst and the Symbionese Liberation Army. 
Patty was abused and raped by her captors, yet she joined their movement and even took part in one of their bank robberies.  At her trial, she was acquitted because she was a victim suffering from Stockholm Syndrome.

Repression

This was the first defense mechanism that Freud discovered, and arguably the most important.  Repression is an unconscious mechanism employed by the ego to keep disturbing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious. 
Thoughts that are often repressed are those that would result in feelings of guilt from the superego.  For example, in the Oedipus complex, aggressive thoughts about the same sex parents are repressed.
This is not a very successful defense in the long term since it involves forcing disturbing wishes, ideas or memories into the unconscious, where, although hidden, they will create anxiety.

Projection

This involves individuals attributing their own thoughts, feeling, and motives to another person (A. Freud, 1936). Thoughts most commonly projected onto another are the ones that would cause guilt such as aggressive and sexual fantasies or thoughts. 
For instance, you might hate someone, but your superego tells you that such hatred is unacceptable.  You can 'solve' the problem by believing that they hate you.

Displacement

Displacement is the redirection of an impulse (usually aggression) onto a powerless substitute target (A. Freud, 1936). The target can be a person or an object that can serve as a symbolic substitute.  Someone who feels uncomfortable with their sexual desire for a real person may substitute a fetish. 
Someone who is frustrated by his or her superiors may go home and kick the dog, beat up a family member, or engage in cross-burnings.

Sublimation

This is similar to displacement, but takes place when we manage to displace our emotions into a constructive rather than destructive activity (A. Freud, 1936). This might, for example, be artistic. 
Many great artists and musicians have had unhappy lives and have used the medium of art of music to express themselves.  Sport is another example of putting our emotions (e.g., aggression) into something constructive.
For example, fixation at the oral stage of development may later lead to seeking oral pleasure as an adult through sucking one's thumb, pen or cigarette.  Also, fixation during the anal stage may cause a person to sublimate their desire to handle faeces with an enjoyment of pottery.
Sublimation for Freud was the cornerstone of civilized life, arts and science are all sublimated sexuality.  (NB. this is a value-laden concept, based on the aspirations of a European society at the end of the 1800 century).





20)Discuss Erickson's stages of psycho-social development and  the emotional characteristics associated with it.

The psychosocial development theory of personality was proposed by Erik Erikson (1902-1994) a German
born Neo-Freudian psychoanalyst. He held that all human beings pass through eight stages of
development on the way to maturity and wisdom. Each stage is marked by a specific crisis or conflict
which demands resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated. According to Erikson,
successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and successful interpersonal and
interpersonal adjustment.
Stages of psychosocial development: The eight stages of psychosocial development identified by Erikson
and the psychological crisis associated with each of them are the following:
Stage 1: Trust vs Mistrust (infancy: birth to 18 months), The psychological task involved at this stage is to
develop trust without completely eliminating the capacity for mistrust. If the infant is properly cared, well
handled, nurtured, and loved, he will develop optimism, a sense of trust, confidence and security. If basic
needs are not met, he becomes insecure and mistrustful.
Stage 2: Autonomy vs Shame and doubt (toddlerhood: 18 months to 3 years): The psychological task
involved at this stage is to achieve a degree of autonomy while minimising shame and doubt. The child
develops independence and autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged. He experience shame,
self-doubt, and unhappiness if overly restricted and protected.
Stage 3: initiative vs guilt (preschooler: 3-5 years) : the third psychological crisis in life is to learn initiative
without too much guilt. During preschool days, there is a widening of child's social world and he is
challenged more than he was as an infant. To deal with these challenges, he begins to explore his
environment and initiate activities of his own. If this tendency is censored either through criticism or
control he develops a sense of guilt.
Stage 4: industry vs inferiority (Elementary school age: 6-12 years): the psychological task of this stage is
to develop a capacity for industry while avoiding an excessive sense of inferiority. During this stage the
child begins to develop a sense of pride in his accomplishments. He directs his energy toward mastering
knowledge and intellectual skills and he experiences the thrill of succeeding in tasks. But if he is prevented
from completing tasks or has his success ridiculed by others the child learns inferiority.
Stage 5: identity vs role confusion (adolescence: 12-18 years): the psychological task of adolescence is to
achieve ego identity and avoid role confusion. At this stage the individual becomes more independent and
begins to look for a role that he feels right for him by identifying his own unique qualities and establishes
a clear self-identity. A healthy sense of own identity results in a person being capable of loyity.
Stage 6: intimacy vs isolation (early adulthood: 18-35 years) the psychological task of early adulthood is
to form positive close relationships with others, as opposed to remaining in isolation. Successful
completion can lead to comfortable relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a
relationship.
Stage 7: Generativity vs stagnation (middle age: 35-60 years) the developmental task of middle age is to
cultivate the proper balance of Generativity and stagnation. During this stage the individual makes
contribution either through raising family and nurturing the next generation or through productive and
creative work. By failing to achieve these objectives, one become stagnant and feels unproductive.

Stage 8: integrity vs despair (later life: 60+) the psychological crisis of this stage is to develop ego integrity
with a minimal amount of despair. Towards the end of life the individual review his accomplishments and
failures. If he finds his life with few regrets and feels personally worthwhile, integrity results, and handles
death well. On the other hand if he sees his life as unproductive feel guilt about his pasts or feels that he
did not accomplish his life goals, he becomes dissatisfied with life and develops despair.
Educational implications of Erickson's theory
1) Encourage initiative in young children. Children in preschool and early childhood education
programs should be given a great deal of freedom to explore their world. They should be allowed
to choose some of the activities they engage in. Criticism should be kept to a minimum so that
children will not develop high levels of guilt and anxiety.
2) Promote industry in elementary school children. Teachers should provide an atmosphere in which
children become passionate about learning. Teachers should kindly but firmly compel children
into the adventure of finding out that they can learn to accomplish things that they themselves
would never have thought they could do. In Erickson’s view it is important for teachers to nourish
this motivation for mastery and curiosity.
3) Stimulate identity exploration in adolescents. Recognise that the students identity is
multidimensional. Aspects include vocational goals, intellectual achievement, interests in
hobbies, sports, music and other areas. Ask adolescents to write essays about such dimensions,
exploring who they are and what they want to freely express their views. This stimulates self-
exploration. Many adolescents in middle schools are just beginning to explore their identity, but
even at this time exposing them to various careers and life options can benefit their identity
development. Encourage adolescents to talk with a school counselor about career options as well
as other aspects of their identity




21.Discuss the relevance of Maslows theory of self-actualization.Suggest steps to be adopted by a teacher to help pupils to achieve self- actualization.

The psychosocial development theory of personality was proposed by Erik Erikson (1902-1994) a German born Neo-Freudian psychoanalyst. He held that all human beings pass through eight stages of development on the way to maturity and wisdom. Each stage is marked by a specific crisis or conflict which demands resolution before the next stage can be satisfactorily negotiated. According to Erikson, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and successful interpersonal and interpersonal adjustment.
Stages of psychosocial development: The eight stages of psychosocial development identified by Erikson and the psychological crisis associated with each of them are the following:
Stage 1: Trust vs Mistrust (infancy: birth to 18 months), The psychological task involved at this stage is to develop trust without completely eliminating the capacity for mistrust. If the infant is properly cared, well handled, nurtured, and loved, he will develop optimism, a sense of trust, confidence and security. If basic needs are not met, he becomes insecure and mistrustful.
Stage 2: Autonomy vs Shame and doubt (toddlerhood: 18 months to 3 years): The psychological task involved at this stage is to achieve a degree of autonomy while minimising shame and doubt. The child develops independence and autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged. He experience shame, self-doubt, and unhappiness if overly restricted and protected.
Stage 3: initiative vs guilt (preschooler: 3-5 years) : the third psychological crisis in life is to learn initiative without too much guilt. During preschool days, there is a widening of child's social world and he is challenged more than he was as an infant. To deal with these challenges, he begins to explore his environment and initiate activities of his own. If this tendency is censored either through criticism or control he develops a sense of guilt.
Stage 4: industry vs inferiority (Elementary school age: 6-12 years): the psychological task of this stage is to develop a capacity for industry while avoiding an excessive sense of inferiority. During this stage the child begins to develop a sense of pride in his accomplishments. He directs his energy toward mastering knowledge and intellectual skills and he experiences the thrill of succeeding in tasks. But if he is prevented from completing tasks or has his success ridiculed by others the child learns inferiority.
Stage 5: identity vs role confusion (adolescence: 12-18 years): the psychological task of adolescence is to achieve ego identity and avoid role confusion. At this stage the individual becomes more independent and begins to look for a role that he feels right for him by identifying his own unique qualities and establishes a clear self-identity. A healthy sense of own identity results in a person being capable of loyity.
Stage 6: intimacy vs isolation (early adulthood: 18-35 years) the psychological task of early adulthood is to form positive close relationships with others, as opposed to remaining in isolation. Successful completion can lead to comfortable relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a relationship.
Stage 7: Generativity vs stagnation (middle age: 35-60 years) the developmental task of middle age is to cultivate the proper balance of Generativity and stagnation. During this stage the individual makes contribution either through raising family and nurturing the next generation or through productive and creative work. By failing to achieve these objectives, one become stagnant and feels unproductive.


Stage 8: integrity vs despair (later life: 60+) the psychological crisis of this stage is to develop ego integrity with a minimal amount of despair. Towards the end of life the individual review his accomplishments and failures. If he finds his life with few regrets and feels personally worthwhile, integrity results, and handles death well. On the other hand if he sees his life as unproductive feel guilt about his pasts or feels that he did not accomplish his life goals, he becomes dissatisfied with life and develops despair.
Educational implications of Erickson's theory

1) Encourage initiative in young children. Children in preschool and early childhood education programs should be given a great deal of freedom to explore their world. They should be allowed to choose some of the activities they engage in. Criticism should be kept to a minimum so that children will not develop high levels of guilt and anxiety.

2) Promote industry in elementary school children. Teachers should provide an atmosphere in which children become passionate about learning. Teachers should kindly but firmly compel children into the adventure of finding out that they can learn to accomplish things that they themselves would never have thought they could do. In Erickson’s view it is important for teachers to nourish this motivation for mastery and curiosity.

3) Stimulate identity exploration in adolescents. Recognise that the students identity is multidimensional. Aspects include vocational goals, intellectual achievement, interests in hobbies, sports, music and other areas. Ask adolescents to write essays about such dimensions, exploring who they are and what they want to freely express their views. This stimulates self-exploration. Many adolescents in middle schools are just beginning to explore their identity, but even at this time exposing them to various careers and life options can benefit their identity development. Encourage adolescents to talk with a school counselor about career options as well as other aspects of their identity.
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